Sanskrit Verbs - Classification of Verbs - Ten gaṇas

Ten gaṇas

Based on how the present stem is generated from the verb root, Sanskrit has ten classes (or gaṇas) of verbs divided into in two broad groups: athematic and thematic. The thematic verbs are so called because an अ a, called the theme vowel, is inserted between the stem and the ending. This serves to make the thematic verbs generally more regular. Exponents used in verb conjugation include prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and reduplication. Every root has (not necessarily all distinct) zero, guṇa, and vṛddhi grades. If V is the vowel of the zero grade, the guṇa-grade vowel is traditionally thought of as a + V, and the vṛddhi-grade vowel as ā + V.

The ten classes were as follows:

Class Example verb Description
1 भरति bharati, bears Thematic presents, accent on the root
2 अत्ति asti, eats Athematic root presents
3 ददाति dadāti, puts Reduplicated athematic presents
4 नश्यति naśyati, perishes Thematic presents in -ya-
5 सुनोति sunóti, presses Athematic presents in -nó-
6 तुदति tudati, beats Thematic presents, accent on the ending
7 रुणद्धि yunákti, blocks Athematic presents with nasal infix -ná-
8 तनोति tanóti "stretches" Athematic presents in -ó- (originally -nó- added to the zero grade of roots ending in -n)
9 क्रीणाति krīṇāti "buys" Athematic presents in -ṇā́- (nasal infix presents of seṭ roots)
10 चोरयति coráyati "steals" Thematic presents in -áya-

Read more about this topic:  Sanskrit Verbs, Classification of Verbs

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