Rio De Janeiro - Demographics

Demographics

Main articles: Demographics of Rio and Demographics of Brazil

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 5,940,224 people residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The census revealed the following numbers: 3,234,812 White people (51.2%), 2,307,104 Brown (Multiracial) people (36.5%), 724,197 Black people (11.5%), 46,484 East Asian people (0.7%), 6,320 Amerindian people (0.1%).

In 2010, the city of Rio de Janeiro was the 2nd most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo.

In 2010, the city had 1,200,697 opposite-sex couples and 5,612 same-sex couples (see more at LGBT rights in Brazil). The population of Rio de Janeiro was 53.2% female and 46.8% male.

Different ethnic groups contributed to the formation of the population of Rio de Janeiro. Before European colonization, there were at least seven different indigenous peoples speaking 20 languages in the region. A part of them joined the Portuguese and the other the French. Those who joined the French were then exterminated by the Portuguese, while the other part was assimilated.

Rio de Janeiro is home to the largest Portuguese population outside of Lisbon in Portugal. After independence from Portugal, Rio de Janeiro became a destination for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Portugal, mainly in the early 20th century. The immigrants were mostly poor peasants who subsequently found prosperity in Rio as city workers and small traders. The Portuguese cultural influence is still seen in many parts of the city (and many other parts of the state of Rio de Janeiro), including architecture and language—almost every person native to Brazil with some cultural contact with Rio and its inhabitants knows how to easily differentiate between fluminense and other Brazilian dialects.

Rio de Janeiro city (1890)
Group Population Percentage
Portuguese immigrants 106,461 20.36%
Brazilians of at least one Portuguese parent 161,203 30.84%
Portuguese immigrants and their descendants 267,664 51.2%

The black community was formed with residents whose ancestors had been brought as slaves, mostly from Angola or Mozambique, as well as more people of Angolan, Mozambican and West African descent from other parts of Brazil. The samba (from Bahia with Angolan influence) and the famous local version of the carnival (from Europe) first appeared under the influence of the black community in the city.

Today, nearly half of the city's population is perceptibly by phenotype black or part black, and a wide majority has some recent Subsaharan ancestor—white in Brazil has more to do with European-looking phenotypes rather than ancestry, and two full siblings can be of different "racial" categories, or actually in a skin color and phenotype continuum between pálido (branco) or fair-skinned, branco moreno or swarthy Caucasian, mestiço claro or lighter skinned multiracial, pardo or brown and negro or black. Race classifications as they are is known in the Anglosphere are not followed in Brazilian culture (at least for most of the population), which captures the concept of cor or "color", the continuous range of phenotypes, and as such perceptions that now most Brazilians are "black rather than white" according to the census data are erroneous in a cultural relativistic viewpoint. Pardo, for example, in popular usage includes those who are caboclos (mestizos), mulatos (mulattoes), cafuzos (zambos), juçaras (archaic term for tri-racials) and westernized Amerindians (which are called caboclos as well), being more of a skin color (brown) rather than a racial group in particular.

Total genetic composition of Rio de Janeiro (2011 study)
Ancestry Amerindian African European
People of Rio de Janeiro 7.4% 18.9% 73.70%

European and Amerindian ancestries also have overwhelming and wide majorities respectively in Rio de Janeiro's population despite any classifications in IBGE's standardized racial groups, thus there were a bi-directional impact of miscegenation (in minor degree, it also happened in other multicultural white-majority regions, at least in some regions of the United States—a hypodescent society where there were the phenomena of passing—as well Argentina, and it is common elsewhere in Latin America) in both white and black populations.

As a result of the influx of immigrants to Brazil from the late 19th to the early 20th century, one may find in Rio de Janeiro and its metropolitan area communities of Levantine Arabs (mostly Christian or Irreligious), Spaniards, Italians, Germans, Japanese, Jews as well non-Jewish people of Ashkenazi descent, and people from different parts of Brazil. The main waves of internal migration came from people of African, mixed or older Portuguese (as colony's settlers) descent from Minas Gerais and people of Eastern European, Swiss, Italian, German, Portuguese and older Portuguese-Brazilian heritage from Espírito Santo in the early and mid 20th century, and people with origins in Northeastern Brazil, of diverse origins, in the mid-to-late and late 20th century, as well some in the early 21st century (the latter more directed to peripheries than the city's core in itself).

Genomic ancestry of non-related individuals in Rio de Janeiro
Race or skin color Number of individuals Amerindian African European
White 107 6.7% 6.9% 86.4%
Pardo (Brown) 119 8.3% 23.6% 68.1%
Black 109 7.3% 50.9% 41.8%

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2009, conducted on a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro, the "pardos" there were found to be on average about 80% European, and the "whites" (who thought of themselves as "very mixed") were found out to carry very little Amerindian and/or African admixtures.

"The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry", say the researchers. In general, the test results showed that European ancestry is far more important than the students thought it would be. The "pardos" for example thought of themselves as 1/3 European, 1/3 African and 1/3 Amerindian before the tests, and yet their ancestry on average reached 80% European.

Self-reported ancestry of people from Rio de Janeiro, by race or skin color (2000 survey)
Ancestry White Brown Black
European only 48% 6%
African only 12% 25%
Amerindian only 2%
African and European 23% 34% 31%
Amerindian and European 14% 6%
African and Amerindian 4% 9%
African, Amerindian and European 15% 36% 35%
Total 100% 100% 100%

Read more about this topic:  Rio De Janeiro

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