Quantifying Reward Dependence
Two questionnaires were devised by Cloninger to measure the temperaments and characters of individuals. RD can be measured using both the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) personality test and by the newer and refined version of the personality test called Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and its revised version (TCI-R). Owing to the limitations encountered in the TPQ, in that the three dimensions’ clinical utility was not readily apparent to many clinicians, Cloninger revamped the questionnaire and produced the TCI scale, which incorporates four dimensions of “temperament” and three dimensions of “character”.
The so-called subscales of RD in TCI-R are
- Sentimentality (RD1)
- Openness to warm communication or social sensitivity (RD2)
- Attachment (RD3)
- Dependence on approval by others (RD4)
A study comparing the TCI to the five factor model of personality found that reward dependence was substantially positively associated with extraversion and to a lesser extent openness to experience.
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