Resistance Movement

A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to opposing an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign state. It may seek to achieve its objects through either the use of nonviolent resistance (sometimes called civil resistance) or the use of armed force. In many cases, as for example in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ both violent and non-violent methods, usually operating under different organizations and acting in different phases or geographical areas within a country.

The term resistance is generally used to designate a movement considered legitimate (from the speaker's point of view). Organizations and individuals critical of foreign intervention and supporting forms of organized movement (particularly where citizens are affected) tend to favor the term. When such a resistance movement uses violence, those favorably disposed to it may also speak of freedom fighters.

On the lawfulness of armed resistance movements in international law, there has been a dispute between states since at least 1899, when the first major codification of the laws of war in the form of a series of international treaties took place. In the Preamble to the 1899 Hague Convention II on Land War, the Martens Clause was introduced as a compromise wording for the dispute between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants. More recently the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, referred in Article 1. Paragraph 4 to armed conflicts "... in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes..." This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of who is or is not a legitimate combatant. Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and their right to resist occupation is recognized. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment.

Read more about Resistance MovementEtymology, Background, Controversy Regarding Definition, Freedom Fighter, Common Weapons, Examples of Resistance Movements

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Polish Contribution To World War II - Polish Resistance
... Education History of Poland during 1939-1945 The main resistance force in German-occupied Poland was the Armia Krajowa ("Home Army" abbreviated "AK"), which numbered some 400,000 soldiers at its peak as ... war, AK could be considered one of the three largest resistance movements in the war ... and provided intelligence on the deployment and movement of German forces After 1943, its direct combat activity increased sharply ...
Cretan Resistance - The Role of The British
... Cretans and the Cretan resistance worked closely with the British, firstly when they aided the allied forces firstly in escaping from Crete and secondly when they worked together on ... to have no involvement with the main Cretan resistance movement, but worked very closely with the British agents, such as Leigh Fermor’s runner George Psychoundakis and Kimonas Zografakis ... The Cretan resistance movement had the support of the British while Crete had strategic importance for the North Africa campaign ...
Libyan Resistance Movement
... The Libyan resistance movement was the resistance movement against the Italian colonization of Libya ...

Famous quotes containing the words movement and/or resistance:

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