500 V DC, Third Rail
- City and South London Railway
The City and South London Railway electrification was unusual (compared with later schemes) in that it used a three-wire DC system. This meant that although the offset centre third rail was electrified at +500 volts in the northbound tunnel, it was electrified at -500 volts in the southbound tunnel. The motors on the locomotives and the incandescent electric lamps in the carriages worked, regardless of the polarity of the supply. The three-wire system was adopted because the initial system was fed directly from the dynamos in the surface power plant at the Stockwell end of the line. It was important to minimise the voltage drop as much as possible, bearing in mind the rather steep gradient on the approach to King William Street station.
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