Psychological Tests - Psychological Tests

Psychological Tests

A psychological test is an objective and standardized measure of an individual's mental and/or behavioral characteristics. A psychological test is an instrument designed to measure unobserved constructs, also known as latent variables. Psychological tests are typically, but not necessarily, a series of tasks or problems that the respondent has to solve. Psychological tests can strongly resemble questionnaires, which are also designed to measure unobserved constructs, but differ in that psychological tests ask for a respondent's maximum performance whereas a questionnaire asks for the respondent's typical performance. A useful psychological test must be both valid (i.e., there is evidence to support the specified interpretation of the test results) and reliable (i.e., internally consistent or give consistent results over time, across raters, etc.).

It is important that people who are equal on the measured construct also have an equal probability of answering the test items correctly. For example, an item on a mathematics test could be "In a soccer match two players get a red card; how many players are left in the end?"; however, this item also requires knowledge of soccer to be answered correctly, not just mathematical ability. Group membership can also influence the chance of correctly answering items (differential item functioning). Often tests are constructed for a specific population, and this should be taken into account when administering tests. If a test is invariant to some group difference (e.g. gender) in one population (e.g. England) it does not automatically mean that it is also invariant in another population (e.g. Japan).

Psychological assessment is similar to psychological testing but usually involves a more comprehensive assessment of the individual. Psychological assessment is a process that involves checking the integration of information from multiple sources, such as tests of normal and abnormal personality, tests of ability or intelligence, tests of interests or attitudes, as well as information from personal interviews. Collateral information is also collected about personal, occupational, or medical history, such as from records or from interviews with parents, spouses, teachers, or previous therapists or physicians. A psychological test is one of the sources of data used within the process of assessment; usually more than one test is used. Many psychologists do some level of assessment when providing services to clients or patients, and may use for example, simple checklists to osis for treatment settings; to assess a particular area of functioning or disability often for school settings; to help select type of treatment or to assess treatment outcomes; to help courts decide issues such as child custody or competency to stand trial; or to help assess job applicants or employees and provide career development counseling or training.

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... Psychologists object to the publication of psychological test material out of concerns that a patient's test responses will be influenced ("primed") by previous exposure ... The Canadian Psychological Association takes the position that, "Publishing the questions and answers to any psychological test compromises its usefulness" and calls for "keeping psychological tests out of the public ... From a legal standpoint, the Rorschach test images have been in the public domain for many years in most countries, particularly those with a copyright term of up to 70 years ...
Hubert Hermans - Work
... His dissertation (1967) was on Motivation and achievement and resulted in two psychological tests The Achievement Motivation Test for adults (1968 published in English in 1971 and in German in 1976 ... Both test belong since then to the most frequently used psychological tests in the Netherlands ... to the static and impersonal nature of psychological tests, he developed a Self-Confrontation Method (SCM 1974 book published in English in 1995) ...
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Psychological Tests - Test Security
... Many psychological tests are generally not available to the public, but rather, have restrictions both from publishers of the tests and from psychology ... Test publishers consider both copyright and matters of professional ethics to be involved in protecting the secrecy of their tests, and they sell tests only to people who have proved their ... Purchasers are legally bound from giving test answers or the tests themselves out to the public unless permitted under the test maker's standard conditions for ...
Psychological Testing - Interpreting Scores
... Psychological tests, like many measurements of human characteristics, can be interpreted in a norm-referenced or criterion-referenced manner ... score interpretation compares an individual's results on the test with the statistical representation of the population ... Norms are available for standardized psychological tests, allowing for an understanding of how an individual's scores compare with the group norms ...

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