Presbyterianism is historically a confessional tradition. This has two implications. The obvious one is that confessional churches express their faith in the form of "confessions of faith," which have some level of authoritative status. However this is based on a more subtle point: In confessional churches, theology is not solely an individual matter. While individuals are encouraged to understand Scripture, and may challenge the current institutional understanding, theology is carried out by the community as a whole. It is this community understanding of theology that is expressed in confessions.
However, there has arisen a spectrum of approaches to "confessionalism". The manner of subscription, or the degree to which the official standards establish the actual doctrine of the church, turns out to be a practical matter. That is, the decisions rendered in ordination and in the courts of the church largely determine what the church means, representing the whole, by its adherence to the doctrinal standard.
Some Presbyterian traditions adopt only the Westminster Confession of Faith as the doctrinal standard to which teaching elders are required to subscribe, in contrast to the Larger and Shorter catechisms, which are approved for use in instruction. Many Presbyterian denominations, especially in North America, have adopted all of the Westminster Standards as their standard of doctrine which is subordinate to the Bible. These documents are Calvinistic in their doctrinal orientation, although some versions of the Confession and the catechisms are more overtly Calvinist than some other, later American revisions. The Presbyterian Church in Canada retains the Westminster Confession of Faith in its original form, while admitting the historical period in which it was written should be understood when it is read.
The Westminster Confession is 'The principal subordinate standard of the Church of Scotland' but 'with due regard to liberty of opinion in points which do not enter into the substance of the Faith' (V). This formulation represents many years of struggle over the extent to which the confession reflects the Word of God and the struggle of conscience of those who came to believe it did not fully do so (e.g., William Robertson Smith). Some Presbyterian Churches, such as the Free Church of Scotland, have no such 'conscience clause'.
The Presbyterian Church USA has adopted the Book of Confessions, which reflects the inclusion of other Reformed confessions in addition to the Westminster documents. These other documents include ancient creedal statements (the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed), 16th century Reformed confessions (the Scots Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Second Helvetic Confession, all of which were written before Calvinism had developed as a particular strand of Reformed doctrine), and 20th century documents (The Theological Declaration of Barmen, Confession of 1967 and A Brief Statement of Faith).
The Presbyterian Church in Canada developed the confessional document Living Faith and retains it as a subordinate standard of the denomination. It is confessional in format, yet like the Westminster Confession, draws attention back to original Bible text.
Presbyterians in Ireland who rejected Calvinism and the Westminster Confessions formed the Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland.
Other articles related to "doctrine, doctrines":
... Some writers see the doctrine of FNC as having developed from an earlier doctrine of forum non competens ("non-competent forum") ... The doctrine of FNC originated in the United States in Willendson v Forsoket 29 Fed Cas 1283 (DC Pa 1801) (No 17,682) where a federal district court in Pennsylvania declined to exercise jurisdiction over a ...
... According to some scholars, the Buddha nature discussed in some Mahāyāna sūtras does not represent a substantial self (ātman) rather, it is a positive language and expression of emptiness (śūnyatā) and represents the potentiality to realize Buddhahood through Buddhist practices ... It is the "true self" in representing the innate aspect of the individual that makes actualizing the ultimate personality possible ...
... The doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary expresses the Virgin Mary's "real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to Jesus the Son of God made Man" ... According to the doctrine, Mary was ever-virgin (Ancient Greek ἀειπαρθένος aeiparthenos) for the whole of her life, making Jesus her only biological son, whose conception and birth are held to be ... By the fourth century, the doctrine had been widely supported by the Church Fathers, and by the seventh century it had been affirmed in a number of ...
... Concerning the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, he has said that if corrections took place by peers, if there were a functioning process of serious review and assessment in light of ...
... Aboriginal title arose at the intersection of three common law doctrines articulated by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council the Act of State doctrine, Doctrine of Continuity, and the Recognition Doctrine ... The Act of State doctrine held that the Crown could confiscate or extinguish real or personal property rights in the process of conquering, without scrutiny ... The Doctrine of Continuity presumed that the Crown did not intend to extinguish private property upon acquiring sovereignty, and thus that pre-existing interests were enforceable under British law ...
Famous quotes containing the word doctrine:
“The doctrine of equality!... But there exists no more poisonous poison: for it seems to be preached by justice itself, while it is the end of justice.... Equality for equals, inequality for unequalsMthat would be the true voice of justice: and, what follows from it, Never make equal what is unequal.”
—Friedrich Nietzsche (18441900)
“There is no doctrine of the Reason which will bear to be taught by the Understanding.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“There is a doctrine uttered in secret that man is a prisoner who has no right to open the door of his prison and run away.”
—Plato (c. 427347 B.C.)