Portuguese Orthography

The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes. Accented letters and digraphs are not counted as separate characters for collation purposes.

A full list of sounds, diphthongs, and their main spellings, is given at Portuguese phonology. For the main values of each letter and digraph, see Portuguese alphabet. This article addresses the less trivial details of the spelling of Portuguese, as well as other issues of orthography, such as accentuation.

Read more about Portuguese Orthography:  Overview, Sounds With More Than One Spelling

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List Of Digraphs In Latin Alphabets - A
... ⟨a’⟩ is used in Taa orthography, where it represents the glottalized or creaky vowel ... ⟨ae⟩ is used in Irish orthography, where it represents between two "broad" (velarized) consonants, e.g ... In Latin orthography, ⟨ae⟩ originally represented the diphthong, before it was monophthongized in the Vulgar Latin period to in medieval manuscripts, the digraph was ...