Physical Dependence - Drugs That Cause Physical Dependence

Drugs That Cause Physical Dependence

  • All µ-opioids with any (even slight) agonist effect, such as (partial list) morphine, heroin, codeine, oxycodone, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, methadone, and fentanil, but not agonists specific to non-µ opioid receptors, such as salvinorin A (a k-opioid agonist), nor opioid antagonists or inverse agonists, such as naltrexone (a universal opioid inverse agonist)
  • All GABA agonists and positive allosteric modulators of both the GABA-A ionotropic receptor and GABA-B metabotropic receptor subunits, of which the following drugs are examples (partial list):
    • barbiturates such as phenobarbital, sodium thiopental and secobarbital
    • benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and alprazolam (Xanax) (see benzodiazepine dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome)
    • nonbenzodiazepines (z-drugs) such as zopiclone and zolpidem.
    • ethyl alcohol (alcoholic beverage) (cf. alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, delirium tremens)
    • gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and 1,4-butanediol
    • carisoprodol (Soma) and related carbamates (tybamate and meprobamate)
    • baclofen (Lioresal) and its non-chlorinated analogue phenibut
    • chloral hydrate
    • glutethimide
    • clomethiazole
    • methaqualone (Quaalude)
  • gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica), calcium channel modifiers that affect GABA
  • antiepileptic drugs such as valproate, lamotrigine, tiagabine, vigabatrin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, and topiramate
  • possibly neuroleptic drugs such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol, thioridazine, etc.
  • commonly prescribed antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (cf. SSRI/SNRI withdrawal syndrome)
  • Nicotine
  • blood pressure medications, including beta blockers such as propanolol and alpha-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine
  • androgenic-anabolic steroids
  • glucocorticoids
  • Cocaine

Drugs such as amphetamines (including methamphetamine and methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA)), cathinone, hallucinogens (such as LSD, psilocin, and mescaline), cannabis (tetrahydrocannabinol) do not cause physical dependency/physical addiction,

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