Phonological Rule - Types

Types

Sound change and alternation
Metathesis
  • Quantitative metathesis
Lenition
  • Consonant gradation
  • Consonant voicing and devoicing
  • Assibilation
  • L-vocalization
  • Debuccalization
Fortition
Epenthesis
  • Anaptyxis
  • Excrescence
  • Prosthesis
  • Paragoge
  • Unpacking
  • Vowel breaking
Elision
  • Apheresis
  • Syncope
  • Apocope
  • Haplology
  • Fusion
  • Cluster reduction
Cheshirization
  • Compensatory lengthening
  • Nasalization
  • Tonogenesis
  • Floating tone
Assimilation
  • Coalescence
  • Coarticulation
  • Palatalization
  • Velarization
  • Labialization
  • Final devoicing
  • Metaphony (vowel harmony, umlaut)
  • Consonant harmony
Dissimilation
Sandhi
  • Liaison, linking R
  • Consonant mutation
  • Tone sandhi
  • Hiatus
Synalepha
  • Elision
  • Crasis
  • Synaeresis and diaeresis
  • Synizesis
Other types
  • Iotacism
  • Lambdacism
  • Rhotacism
  • Sigmatism
  • Rhinoglottophilia
  • Sulcalization

Phonological rules can be roughly divided into four types:

  • Assimilation: When a sound changes one of its features to be more similar to an adjacent sound. This is the kind of rule that occurs in the English plural rule described above—the -s becomes voiced or voiceless depending on whether or not the preceding consonant is voiced.
  • Dissimilation: When a sound changes one of its features to become less similar to an adjacent sound, usually to make the two sounds more distinguishable. This type of rule is often seen among people speaking a language that is not their native language, where the sound contrasts may be difficult.
  • Insertion: When an extra sound is added between two others. This also occurs in the English plural rule: when the plural morpheme -s is added to "bus," "bus-s" would be unpronouncable, so a short vowel (the schwa, ) is inserted between the two s.
  • Deletion: When a sound, such as a stressless syllable or a weak consonant, is not pronounced; for example, most American English speakers do not pronounce the in "handbag".

Read more about this topic:  Phonological Rule

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