Papillomavirus

Papillomavirus

Alphapapillomavirus
Betapapillomavirus
Gammapapillomavirus
Deltapapillomavirus
Epsilonpapillomavirus
Etapapillomavirus
Iotapapillomavirus
Kappapapillomavirus
Lambdapapillomavirus
Mupapillomavirus
Nupapillomavirus
Omikronpapillomavirus
Pipapillomavirus
Thetapapillomavirus
Xipapillomavirus
Zetapapillomavirus

Papillomaviridae is an ancient taxonomic family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, collectively known as papillomaviruses. Several hundred species of papillomaviruses, traditionally referred to as "types", have been identified infecting all carefully inspected mammals, but also other amniotes such as birds, snakes and turtles. Infection by most papillomavirus types, depending on the type, is either asymptomatic (e.g. most Beta-PVs) or causes small benign tumors, known as papillomas or warts (e.g. human papillomavirus1, HPV6 or HPV11). Papillomas caused by some types, however, such as human papillomaviruses 16 and 18, carry a risk of becoming cancerous.

Papillomaviruses are usually considered as highly host- and tissue-tropic, and are thought to rarely be transmitted between species. Papillomaviruses replicate exclusively in the basal layer of the body surface tissues. All known papillomavirus types infect a particular body surface, typically the skin or mucosal epithelium of the genitals, anus, mouth, or airways. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) type 1 tends to infect the soles of the feet, and HPV type 2 the palms of the hands, where they may cause warts. Additionally, there are descriptions of the presence papillomavirus DNA in the blood and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Papillomaviruses were first identified in the early 20th century, when it was shown that skin warts, or papillomas, could be transmitted between individuals by a filterable infectious agent. In 1935 Francis Peyton Rous, who had previously demonstrated the existence of a cancer-causing sarcoma virus in chickens, went on to show that a papillomavirus could cause skin cancer in infected rabbits. This was the first demonstration that a virus could cause cancer in mammals.

Read more about Papillomavirus:  Taxonomy of Papillomaviruses, Animal Papillomaviruses, Evolution, Structure, Tissue Specificity, Association With Cancer, Laboratory Study, Genetic Organization and Gene Expression, Technical Discussion of Papillomavirus Gene Functions

Other articles related to "papillomavirus":

Bovine Papillomavirus
... Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a group of DNA viruses of the family Papillomaviridae that are common in cattle ... provides an excellent model for studying papillomavirus molecular biology, and also allows the dissection of the processes by which this group of viruses cause cancer ...
Bovine Papillomavirus - Types
... deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are also found in this group ... Like all members of the papillomavirus class, these viruses infect only keratinocytes (epithelial cells) however, unlike other papillomaviruses, they cause proliferation of both ...
Papillomaviridae - Animal Papillomaviruses
... Individual papillomavirus types tend to be highly adapted to replication in a single animal species ... of zoo animals and used PCR to amplify any papillomavirus DNA that might be present ... Although a wide variety of papillomavirus sequences were identified in the study, the authors found little evidence for inter-species transmission ...
Papillomaviridae - Technical Discussion of Papillomavirus Gene Functions - L1
... Compared to other papillomavirus genes, the amino acid sequences of most portions of L1 are well-conserved between types ... for different members of a particular papillomavirus species ... for evasion of neutralizing antibody responses elicited by previous papillomavirus infections ...
Technical Discussion of Papillomavirus Gene Functions - L2
... L2 exists in an oxidized state within the papillomavirus virion, with the two conserved cysteine residues forming an intramolecular disulfide bond ... Small portions of L2 are well-conserved between different papillomavirus types, and experimental vaccines targeting these conserved domains may offer protection against a broad range of HPV types ...