P-Celtic and Q-Celtic Languages

P-Celtic And Q-Celtic Languages

The P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis is a categorization for the Celtic languages. The theory links Gaulish with Brythonic as P-Celtic and links Goidelic with Celtiberian as Q-Celtic. The difference between P and Q languages is the treatment of Proto-Celtic *kw, which became *p in the P-Celtic languages but *k in Goidelic. For example the word for head is pen in Brythonic languages but ceann in Goidelic; the word for son is mab (earlier map) in Brythonic but mac in Goidelic – maqq on the Primitive Irish Ogham inscriptions.

P-Celtic incorporates the following:

  • Gallic
    • Gaulish
    • Lepontic
    • Noric
    • Galatian
  • Pritennic
    • Pictish
  • Brythonic (British)
    • West Brythonic
      • Old Welsh
        • Middle Welsh
          • Welsh
      • Cumbric
    • Southwestern Brythonic
      • Old Breton
        • Middle Breton
          • Breton
      • Old Cornish
        • Middle Cornish
          • Cornish

Q-Celtic incorporates the following:

  • Goidelic
    • Primitive Irish
      • Old Irish
        • Middle Irish
          • Irish
          • Scottish Gaelic
          • Manx
  • Celtiberian languages
    • Celtiberian
    • Northwestern Hispano-Celtic

Read more about P-Celtic And Q-Celtic Languages:  Alternative Theories

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P-Celtic And Q-Celtic Languages - Alternative Theories
... A competing scheme was defended for example by McCone (1996), links Goidelic and Brythonic together as an Insular Celtic branch, as opposed to Continental Celtic languages including Gaulish and Celtiberian. ...

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