Nuclear Energy In Switzerland
Switzerland has four nuclear power plants, with five reactors in operation as of 2008. These plants produced 26.3 TWh in 2007 (up 19.5% from 2005, when 22.0 TWh were produced). Nuclear power accounts for 39.9% of the total production of electricity (65.9 TWh) in the country; the rest was produced by hydroelectric plants (55.2%) and conventional thermal or other plants (4.9%). Switzerland expanded the production of its exising units through an uprate, increasing capacity by 13.4%
In addition, there are a number of research reactors in Switzerland, such as the CROCUS reactor at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
Switzerland uses nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. Any project for the adoption of nuclear weapons was definitively dropped in 1988.
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... Internal energy, U, must be supplied to remove particles from a surrounding in order to allow space for the creation of a system, providing that environmental variables, such as pressure (p) remain constant ... This internal energy also includes the energy required for activation and the breaking of bonded compounds into gaseous species ... within enthalpy calculations as U + pV, to label the amount of energy or work required to "set aside space for" and "create" the system describing the work done by both the reaction or formation ...
... The U term can be interpreted as the energy required to create the system, and the pV term as the energy that would be required to "make room" for the system if ... p and temperature T, is created or brought to its present state from absolute zero, energy must be supplied equal to its internal energy U plus pV, where pV is the work done in ... more interesting to study the internal properties of the system and therefore the internal energy is used ...
... One form of energy can often be readily transformed into another with the help of a device- for instance, a battery, from chemical energy to electric energy a dam gravitational ... Similarly, in the case of a chemical explosion, chemical potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy and thermal energy in a very short time ... At its highest points the kinetic energy is zero and the gravitational potential energy is at maximum ...
... most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are ... metabolism is limited on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an ... Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber ...
... Nuclear energy on the website of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) ... Maps of nuclear power reactors Switzerland ... Preparing a seismic hazard model for Switzerland The view from PEGASOS Expert Group 3 ...
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