Northern Iraq

Northern Iraq

Kurdistan (Kurdish: هه‌رێمی کوردستان‎‎ Herêmî Kurdistan; Arabic: إقليم كردستان العراقIqlīm Kurdistān Al-‘Irāq), also known as the Kurdistan Region or Southern Kurdistan, is an autonomous region of northeastern Iraq. It borders Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria to the west and the rest of Iraq to the south. The regional capital is Arbil, known in Kurdish as Hewlêr. (The word Hewlêr is a metathesis of the non-Semitic name Arbel.) The region is officially governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government.

The establishment of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq dates back to the March 1970 autonomy agreement between the Kurdish opposition and the Iraqi government after years of heavy fighting. The agreement however failed to be implemented and by 1974 Northern Iraq plunged into another round of bloody conflict between the Kurds and the Arab-dominated government of Iraq. Further, the Iran-Iraq war during the 1980s and the Anfal genocide campaign of the Iraqi army devastated the population and nature of Iraqi Kurdistan.

Following the 1991 uprising of the Iraqi people against Saddam Hussein, many Kurds were forced to flee the country to become refugees in bordering regions of Iran and Turkey. A northern no-fly zone was established following the First Gulf War in 1991 to facilitate the return of Kurdish refugees. As Kurds continued to fight government troops, Iraqi forces finally left Kurdistan in October 1991, leaving the region to function de facto autonomy; however, neither of the two major Kurdish parties had at any time declared independence and Iraqi Kurdistan continues to function as an integral part of a united Iraq, but one in which it administers its own affairs. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and the subsequent political changes led to the ratification of a new Constitution of Iraq in 2005. The new Iraqi constitution defines Iraqi Kurdistan as a federal entity of Iraq, and establishes Arabic and Kurdish as Iraq's joint official languages.

Iraqi Kurdistan is a parliamentary democracy with a regional assembly that consists of 111 seats. The current president is Massoud Barzani, who was initially elected in 2005 and re-elected in 2009. The three governorates of Duhok, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah comprise around 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi) and have a population of 5.5 million.

Read more about Northern Iraq:  Etymology, Politics, Human Rights, Economy, Geography and Climate, Administrative Divisions, Demographics, Culture, Military, Education, Petroleum and Mineral Resources, See Also

Other articles related to "iraq, northern iraq, northern":

Turkey–United States Relations - War On Terror
... However, the Iraq war faced strong domestic opposition in Turkey and as such, the Turkish Parliament couldn't reach the absolute majority of 276 votes needed for allowing U.S ... troops to attack Iraq from Turkey, the final tally being 264 votes for and 250 against ... an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilized Iraq ...
Northern Iraq - See Also
... Kurdistan portal Iraq portal Kurds in Iraq Kurds in Syria History of the Kurdish people Iranian Kurdistan Turkish Kurdistan List of Kurdish dynasties and countries ...
Pkk - Activities - 1999–current - Ceasefire
... officials transmitted letters between Öcalan in jail to PKK leaders in northern Iraq ... and the withdrawal will immediately stop." The semi-autonomous Kurdish region of Iraq welcomed the idea of refugees from its northern neighbor ... with groups of fighters crossing the border from southeastern Turkey to northern Iraq ...
2008 Turkish Incursion Into Northern Iraq
... The 2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq, code-named Operation Sun (Turkish Güneş Harekatı) by the Turkish Armed Forces, began on February 21, 2008, when ... ground offensive was preceded by Turkish Air Force aerial bombardments against PKK camps in northern Iraq, which began on December 16, 2007 ... This constituted the "first confirmed ground incursion" of Iraq since the 2003 U.S.-led invasion ...
Assyrian Nationalism - Irredentism
... part of the original Assyrian homeland, in the Nineveh plains of Northern Iraq ... from before World War I to the present-day Iraq War ... The Assyrian-inhabited area of Iraq is located primarily but not exclusively in the Ninawa-Mosul region in Northern Iraq where the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh was located ...

Famous quotes containing the word northern:

    That we can come here today and in the presence of thousands and tens of thousands of the survivors of the gallant army of Northern Virginia and their descendants, establish such an enduring monument by their hospitable welcome and acclaim, is conclusive proof of the uniting of the sections, and a universal confession that all that was done was well done, that the battle had to be fought, that the sections had to be tried, but that in the end, the result has inured to the common benefit of all.
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