Neuro D

NeuroD, also called Beta2, is a basic helix loop helix transcription factor expressed in certain parts of brain, beta pancreatic cells and enteroendocrine cells. It is involved in the differentiation of nervous system and development of pancreas. It heterodimerizes with the products of E2A gene and controls the transcription of a variety of genes by identifying and binding E boxes in their promoter region.

There are two types of this factor:

  • NeuroD1
  • NeuroD2
Transcription factors and intracellular receptors
(1) Basic domains
(1.1) Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) Activating transcription factor (AATF, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) · AP-1 (c-Fos, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, JDP2, c-Jun, JUNB, JUND) · BACH (1, 2) · BATF · BLZF1 · C/EBP (α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ) · CREB (1, 3, L1) · CREM · DBP · DDIT3 · GABPA · HLF · MAF (B, F, G, K) · NFE (2, L1, L2, L3) · NFIL3 · NRL · NRF (1, 2, 3) · XBP1
(1.2) Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ATOH1 · AhR · AHRR · ARNT · ASCL1 · BHLH (2, 9) · BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) · CLOCK · EPAS1 · FIGLA · HAND (1, 2) · HES (5, 6) · HEY (1, 2, L) · HES1 · HIF (1A, 3A) · ID (1, 2, 3, 4) · LYL1 · MESP2 · MXD4 · MYCL1 · MYCN · Myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD, Myogenin, MYF5, MYF6) · Neurogenins (1, 2, 3) · NeuroD (1, 2) · NPAS (1, 2, 3) · OLIG (1, 2) · Pho4 · Scleraxis · SIM (1, 2) · TAL (1, 2) · Twist · USF1
(1.3) bHLH-ZIP AP-4 · MAX · MITF · MNT · MLX · MXI1 · Myc · SREBP (1, 2)
(1.4) NF-1 NFI (A, B, C, X) · SMAD (R-SMAD (1, 2, 3, 5, 9) - I-SMAD (6, 7) - 4)
(1.5) RF-X RFX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ANK)
(1.6) Basic helix-span-helix (bHSH) AP-2 (α, β, γ, δ, ε)
(2) Zinc finger DNA-binding domains
(2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4) subfamily 1 (Thyroid hormone (α, β), CAR, FXR, LXR (α, β), PPAR (α, β/δ, γ), PXR, RAR (α, β, γ), ROR (α, β, γ), Rev-ErbA (α, β), VDR)
subfamily 2 (COUP-TF (I, II), Ear-2, HNF4 (α, γ), PNR, RXR (α, β, γ), Testicular receptor (2, 4), TLX)
subfamily 3 (Steroid hormone (Androgen, Estrogen (α, β), Glucocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid, Progesterone), Estrogen related (α, β, γ))
subfamily 4 NUR (NGFIB, NOR1, NURR1) · subfamily 5 (LRH-1, SF1) · subfamily 6 (GCNF) · subfamily 0 (DAX1, SHP)
(2.2) Other Cys4 GATA (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) · MTA (1, 2, 3) · TRPS1
(2.3) Cys2His2 General transcription factors (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE (1, 2), TFIIF (1, 2), TFIIH (1, 2, 4, 2I, 3A, 3C1, 3C2))
ATBF1 · BCL (6, 11A, 11B) · CTCF · E4F1 · EGR (1, 2, 3, 4) · ERV3 · GFI1 · GLI-Krüppel family (1, 2, 3, REST, S1, S2, YY1) · HIC (1, 2) · HIVEP (1, 2, 3) · IKZF (1, 2, 3) · ILF (2, 3) · KLF (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17) · MTF1 · MYT1 · OSR1 · PRDM9 · SALL (1, 2, 3, 4) · SP (1, 2, 4, 7, 8) · TSHZ3 · WT1 · Zbtb7 (7A, 7B) · ZBTB (11, 16, 17, 20, 32, 33, 40) · zinc finger (3, 7, 9, 10, 19, 22, 24, 33B, 34, 35, 41, 43, 44, 51, 74, 143, 146, 148, 165, 202, 217, 219, 238, 239, 259, 267, 268, 281, 295, 300, 318, 330, 346, 350, 365, 366, 384, 423, 451, 452, 471, 593, 638, 644, 649, 655)
(2.4) Cys6 HIVEP1
(2.5) Alternating composition AIRE · DIDO1 · GRLF1 · ING (1, 2, 4) · JARID (1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2) · JMJD1B
(3) Helix-turn-helix domains
(3.1) Homeodomain ARX · CDX (1, 2) · CRX · CUTL1 · DBX (1, 2) · DLX (3, 4, 5) · EMX (1, 2) · EN (1, 2) · FHL (1, 2, 3) · HESX1 · HHEX · HLX · Homeobox (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A9, A10, A11, A13, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B13, C4, C5, C6, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12, C13, D1, D3, D4, D8, D9, D10, D11, D12, D13) · HOPX · IRX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, MKX) · LMX (1A, 1B) · MEIS (1, 2) · MEOX2 · MNX1 · MSX (1, 2) · NANOG · NKX (2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-5, 3-1, 3-2, 6-1, 6-2) · NOBOX · PBX (1, 2, 3) · PHF (1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 16, 17, 20, 21A) · PHOX (2A, 2B) · PITX (1, 2, 3) · POU domain (PIT-1, BRN-3: A, B, C, Octamer transcription factor: 1, 2, 3/4, 6, 7, 11) · OTX (1, 2) · PDX1 · SATB2 · SHOX2 · SIX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) · VAX1 · ZEB (1, 2)
(3.2) Paired box PAX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
(3.3) Fork head / winged helix E2F (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) · FOX proteins (A1, A2, A3, C1, C2, D3, D4, E1, E3, F1, G1, H1, I1, J1, J2, K1, K2, L2, M1, N1, N3, O1, O3, O4, P1, P2, P3, P4)
(3.4) Heat Shock Factors HSF (1, 2, 4)
(3.5) Tryptophan clusters ELF (2, 4, 5) · EGF · ELK (1, 3, 4) · ERF · ETS (1, 2, ERG, SPIB) · ETV (1, 4, 5, 6) · FLI1 · Interferon regulatory factors (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) · MYB · MYBL2
(3.6) TEA domain transcriptional enhancer factor (1, 2, 3, 4)
(4) β-Scaffold factors with minor groove contacts
(4.1) Rel homology region NF-κB (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, RELB) · NFAT (C1, C2, C3, C4, 5)
(4.2) STAT STAT (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
(4.3) p53 p53 · TBX (1, 2, 3, 5, 19, 21, 22, Brachyury, TBR1, TBR2) · TP63
(4.4) MADS box Mef2 (A, B, C, D) · SRF
(4.6) TATA binding proteins TBP · TBPL1
(4.7) High-mobility group BBX · HMGB (1, 2, 3, 4) · HMGN (1, 2, 3, 4) · HNF (1A, 1B) · LEF1 · SOX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21) · SRY · SSRP1 · TCF (3, 4) · TOX (1, 2, 3, 4)
(4.9) Grainyhead TFCP2
(4.10) Cold-shock domain CSDA, YBX1
(4.11) Runt CBF (CBFA2T2, CBFA2T3, RUNX1, RUNX2, RUNX3, RUNX1T1)
(0) Other transcription factors
(0.2) HMGI(Y) HMGA (1, 2) · HBP1
(0.3) Pocket domain Rb · RBL1 · RBL2
(0.5) AP-2/EREBP-related factors Apetala 2 · EREBP · B3
(0.6) Miscellaneous ARID (1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 4A) · CAP · IFI (16, 35) · MLL (2, 3, T1) · MNDA · NFY (A, B, C) · Rho/Sigma
see also transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies
B bsyn: dna (repl, cycl, reco, repr) · tscr (fact, tcrg, nucl, rnat, rept, ptts) · tltn (risu, pttl, nexn) · dnab, rnab/runp · stru (domn, 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°)