Nestor Makhno

Nestor Makhno

Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, Russian: Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S.November 8) – July 6, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.

As commander of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, more commonly referred to as the Makhnovshchina, Makhno led a guerrilla campaign during the Russian Civil War. Makhno fought all factions that sought to impose any external authority over southern Ukraine, battling in succession the Ukrainian Nationalists, the Imperial German and Austro-Hungarian occupation, the Hetmanate Republic, the White Army, the Red Army, and other smaller forces led by Ukrainian atamans. Makhno and his movement repeatedly attempted to reorganize life in the Gulai-Polye region along anarchist-communist lines, however, the disruptions of the civil war precluded any long term social experiments. Although Makhno considered the Bolsheviks a threat to the development of an anarchist Free Territory within Ukraine, he twice entered into military alliances with them to defeat the White Army. In the aftermath of the White Army's final defeat in November 1920, the Bolsheviks initiated a military campaign against Makhno, which concluded with his escape across the Romanian border in August 1921. After a series of imprisonments and escapes, Makhno finally settled in Paris with his wife Galina and daughter Yelena. In exile Makhno authored three volumes of memoirs. Makhno died in exile at the age of 45 from tuberculosis-related causes. He is also credited as the inventor of the tachanka, a horse-drawn platform mounting a heavy machine gun.

Read more about Nestor Makhno:  Early Life, Organizing The Peasants' Movement, The Makhnovists and Formation of The Anarchist Black Army, Exile, Legacy, Personal Life

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Maria Nikiforova - Legacy - Treatment By Historians
... Nestor Makhno provided eye-witness accounts of several dramatic incidents in Nikiforova's life within his memoirs ... Makhno's former adjutant, Viktor Belash, also wrote of her life within his own records, which were rescued from files held by the Soviet secret police ... While several biographies of Nestor Makhno have been published, there is little mention of Nikiforova ...
Maria Nikiforova - Biography - Enter Nestor Makhno
... Hundreds of men, mostly anarchists, formed a Black Guard under Nestor Makhno and his brother Sava, and marched on Alexandrovsk ... Under siege by advancing Red Army forces to the north, Makhno's anarchists to the east, and subversion by Nikiforova's Black Guards from within, the nationalist army retreated from the city on January 15, 1918 ... Makhno's forces arrived within days, altering the balance of power in the anarchist's favor ...
Nestor Makhno - Personal Life
... In 1919, Nestor Makhno married Agafya (aka Halyna) Kuzmenko, a former elementary schoolteacher (1892–1978), who became his aide ... (according to other accounts, Grigoriev was killed by Chubenko, a member of Makhno's staff or Makhno himself) ... Two of Makhno's brothers were his active supporters and aides before being captured in battle by the German occupation forces and executed by firing squad ...
Errico Malatesta - Political Beliefs
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