In mines, where methane seeping from rock formations has no odor, sensors are used, and mining apparatus such as the Davy lamp has been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources.
Some gas fields yield sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This untreated gas is toxic. Amine gas treating, an industrial scale process which removes acidic gaseous components, is often used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas.
Extraction of natural gas (or oil) leads to decrease in pressure in the reservoir. Such decrease in pressure in turn may result in subsidence, sinking of the ground above. Subsidence may affect ecosystems, waterways, sewer and water supply systems, foundations, and so on.
Another ecosystem effect results from the noise of the process. This can change the composition of animal life in the area, and have consequences for plants as well in that animals disperse seeds and pollen.
Releasing the gas from low-permeability reservoirs is accomplished by a process called hydraulic fracturing or "hydrofracking". To allow the natural gas to flow out of the shale, oil operators force 1 to 9 million US gallons (34,000 m3) of water mixed with a variety of chemicals through the wellbore casing into the shale. The high pressure water breaks up or "fracks" the shale, which releases the trapped gas. Sand is added to the water as a proppant to keep the fractures in the shale open, thus enabling the gas to flow into the casing and then to the surface. The chemicals are added to the frack fluid to reduce friction and combat corrosion. During the extracting life of a gas well, other low concentrations of other chemical substances may be used, such as biocides to eliminate fouling, scale and corrosion inhibitors, oxygen scavengers to remove a source of corrosion, and acids to clean the perforations in the pipe.
Dealing with fracking fluid can be a challenge. Along with the gas, 30 per cent to 70 per cent of the chemically laced frack fluid, or flow back, returns to the surface. Additionally, a significant amount of salt and other minerals, once a part of the rock layers that were under prehistoric seas, may be incorporated in the flow back as they dissolve in the frack fluid.
Other articles related to "production":
... Kaman was awarded a contract for four prototype and 12 production HU2K-1 helicopters in late 1957 ... With no follow-on orders, Kaman ended production in the late 1960s after delivering 184 SH-2s to the US Navy although production would be later restarted in 1971 to manufacture an improved variant of the helicopter ... A significant factor in the reopening of the production line was that the Navy's Sikorsky SH-60 Sea Hawk, which was newer and more capable in anti-submarine operations ...
... measuring the total expenditure of money used to buy things is a way of measuring production ... Note that if you knit yourself a sweater, it is production but does not get counted as GDP because it is never sold ... such as child-rearing (generally unpaid) as production, GDP ceases to be an accurate indicator of production ...
... The relationship between design and production is one of planning and executing ... In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process ... A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering process, although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of designers ...
Famous quotes containing the word production:
“The society based on production is only productive, not creative.”
—Albert Camus (19131960)
“Constant revolutionizing of production ... distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses, his real conditions of life, and his relations with his kind.”
—Karl Marx (18181883)
“The development of civilization and industry in general has always shown itself so active in the destruction of forests that everything that has been done for their conservation and production is completely insignificant in comparison.”
—Karl Marx (18181883)