National Anthem - Modality

Modality

While most national anthems are in the standard major scale, there are a number of notable exceptions. "İstiklâl Marşı" (Turkey), "Mila Rodino" (Bulgaria), "Nad Tatrou sa blýska"' (Slovakia), "Hatikvah" (Israel), "Surudi Milli" (Tajikistan), "Azərbaycan marşı" (Azerbaijan), "Mawtini" (Iraq), "Deșteaptă-te, române!" (Romania) and "Meniñ Qazaqstanım" (Kazakhstan) are in a minor scale, while "Kimi ga Yo" (Japan), "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Kenya), "Druk tsendhen" (Bhutan), and "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Nepal) use pentatonic scales. "Ey Iran" (Iran, unofficial) uses the Phrygian mode (known in Middle Eastern music as a variety of maqam kurd) and Garaşsyz, Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni (Turkmenistan) uses the Mixolydian mode. The national anthem of South Africa and Il Canto degli Italiani (Italy) do not end in the same key in which they start. The Afghan National Anthem uses parallel key modulation.

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