Nanking Massacre

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanking (Nanjing), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army. Widespread rape and looting also occurred. Historians and witnesses have estimated that 250,000 to 300,000 people were killed. Several of the key perpetrators of the atrocities, at the time labelled as war crimes, were later tried and found guilty at the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal, and were subsequently executed. Another key perpetrator, Prince Asaka, a member of the Imperial Family, escaped prosecution by having earlier been granted immunity by the Allies.

The event remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists, who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes. As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines.

An accurate estimation of the death toll in the massacre has not been achieved because most of the Japanese military records on the killings were deliberately destroyed or kept secret shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945. The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimates more than 200,000 casualties in the incident; China's official estimate is about 300,000 casualties, based on the evaluation of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal. Estimates from Japanese historians vary widely, in the vicinity of 40,000–200,000. Some historical revisionists even deny that a widespread, systematic massacre occurred at all, claiming that any deaths were either justified militarily, accidental or isolated incidents of unauthorized atrocities. These revisionists claim that the characterization of the incident as a large-scale, systematic massacre was fabricated for the purpose of political propaganda.

Although the Japanese government has admitted to the acts of killing of a large number of noncombatants, looting and other violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanking, a small but vocal minority within both the Japanese government and society have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred. Denial of the massacre (and a divergent array of revisionist accounts of the killings) has become a staple of Japanese nationalism. In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny the occurrence of the massacre outright. Nonetheless, recurring attempts by negationists to promote a revisionist history of the incident have created controversy that periodically reverberates in the international media, particularly in China, South Korea, and other East Asian nations.

Read more about Nanking Massacre:  Military Situation, Massacre, Matsui's Reaction To The Massacre, End of The Massacre, Recall of Matsui and Asaka, Death Toll Estimates, War Crimes Tribunals, Memorials, Controversy

Other articles related to "nanking massacre, nanking, massacre":

Nanking Massacre Denial - Schools of Thought - Revived International Interest in The Nanking Massacre
... Iris Chang's book, The Rape of Nanking, renewed global interest in the Nanking Massacre ... which were seized on by Japanese ultra-nationalists as evidence that the Nanking Massacre was a fabrication which sought "to demonize the Japanese race, culture, history, and nation." ...
Prince Yasuhiko Asaka - Biography - Role in The Nanking Massacre
1937, Prince Asaka became temporary commander of the Japanese forces outside Nanking (or Nanjing), then capital of China, because General Matsui was ... As temporary commander of the final assault on Nanking between 2 and 6 December 1937, he allegedly issued the order to "kill all captives", thus providing ... While Prince Asaka's responsibility for the Nanking Massacre remains a matter of debate, the sanction for the massacre and the crimes committed during the invasion of China ...
Shūdō Higashinakano
... history at Asia University who maintains that the 1937 Nanking Massacre ("The Rape of Nanking") committed by Japanese troops during the Second Sino-Japanese War is a hoax ... when he attacked Iris Chang's 1997 book The Rape of Nanking ... the war crimes trial in Tokyo after World War II, he opined that "there existed no 'Rape of Nanking' as alleged by the Tokyo Trial." He claimed to have identified 90 historical factual errors in the first 64 ...
Nanking Massacre - Popular Media - Records
... published the names of 13,000 people who were killed by Japanese troops in the Nanking Massacre ... the 70th anniversary of the start of the massacre ... series (Collection of Historical Materials of Nanjing Massacre (南京大屠杀史料集) about the massacre ...
Historiography Of The Nanking Massacre - Sino-Japanese War
... a result, the Japanese public was not aware of the Nanking Massacre or other war crimes committed by the Japanese military ... Japanese officials lied about civilian death figures at the time of the Nanking Massacre, and some Japanese ultranationalists are still active in attempting to deny that the killings ever occurred ... Controversy and confusion over the Nanking massacre occurred even soon after, in 1943 George Orwell wrote in Looking Back on the Spanish War "Recently I noticed that the very people who ...

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