Montreux Convention Regarding The Regime Of The Turkish Straits
The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus Straits and the Dardanelles and regulates the transit of naval warships. The Convention gives Turkey full control over the Straits and guarantees the free passage of civilian vessels in peacetime. It restricts the passage of naval ships not belonging to Black Sea states. The terms of the convention have been the source of controversy over the years, most notably concerning the Soviet Union's military access to the Mediterranean Sea.
Signed on 20 July 1936, it permitted Turkey to remilitarise the Straits. It went into effect on November 9, 1936 and was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on December 11, 1936. It is still in force today, with some amendments.
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... The Convention remains in force today, with amendments, though not without dispute ... As early as 1939, Joseph Stalin sought to reopen the Straits Question and proposed joint Turkish and Soviet control of the Straits, complaining that "a small state supported by Great ... issue in 1945 and 1946, demanding a revision of the Montreux Convention at a conference excluding most of the Montreux signatories, a permanent Soviet military presence and ...
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