Monoclonal

Monoclonal cells are defined as a group of cells produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication. Thus they can be said to form a single "clone". The process of replication can occur in vivo, or may be stimulated in vitro for laboratory manipulations. The use of the term typically implies that there is some method to distinguish between the cells of the original population from which the single ancestral cell is derived, such as a random genetic alteration, which is inherited by the progeny.

The most common usages of this term are:

  • Monoclonal antibodies: A single hybridoma cell, which by chance includes the appropriate V(D)J recombination to produce the desired antibody, is cloned to produce a large population of identical cells. In informal laboratory jargon the monoclonal antibodies isolated from cell culture supernatants of these hybridoma clones (hybridoma "lines") are simply called "monoclonals".
  • Monoclonal neoplasms (tumors): A single aberrant cell which has undergone an oncogenic event reproduces itself into a large cancerous mass.

Other articles related to "monoclonal":

Bispecific Monoclonal Antibody
... A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb, BsAb) is an artificial protein that is composed of fragments of two different monoclonal antibodies and consequently binds to two different types of ...
Anti-mesothelin Monoclonal Antibody MORAb-009
... Anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody MORAb-009 is a monoclonal antibody being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer ... Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells ... Anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody MORAb-009 binds to mesothelin (a protein that is made by some cancer cells) and stops the cells from dividing ...
Anti-TGF-beta Monoclonal Antibody GC1008
... Anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody GC1008 is a monoclonal antibody being studied in the treatment of kidney cancer, melanoma, and pulmonary fibrosis ... Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells ... Anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody GC1008 binds to the protein transforming growth factor-beta (TGFß) and may block the growth of cancer cells that make it ...
Plasma Cell Dyscrasia
... Plasma cell dyscrasias are produced as a result of malignant proliferation of a monoclonal population of plasma cells that may or may not secrete detectable levels of a monoclonal ... Although the most common plasma cell dyscrasia is monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) closely related disorders include multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma of bone, extramedullary ...