History of Molecular Cloning
Prior to the 1970s, our understanding of genetics and molecular biology was severely hampered by an inability to isolate and study individual genes from complex organisms. This changed dramatically with the advent of molecular cloning methods. Microbiologists, seeking to understand the molecular mechanisms through which bacteria restricted the growth of bacteriophage, isolated restriction endonucleases, enzymes that could cleave DNA molecules only when specific DNA sequences were encountered. They showed that restriction enzymes cleaved chromosome-length DNA molecules at specific locations, and that specific sections of the larger molecule could be purified by size fractionation. Using a second enzyme, DNA ligase, fragments generated by restriction enzymes could be joined in new combinations, termed recombinant DNA. By recombining DNA segments of interest with vector DNA, such as bacteriophage or plasmids, which naturally replicate inside bacteria, large quantities of purified recombinant DNA molecules could be produced in bacterial cultures. The first recombinant DNA molecules were generated and studied in 1972.
Read more about this topic: Molecular Cloning
Other articles related to "molecular":
... The Journal of Molecular Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published weekly by Elsevier ... scientific research concerning studies of organisms or their components at the molecular level ...
... In molecular physics, the molecular term symbol is a shorthand expression of the group representation and angular momenta that characterize the state of a ... its electronic quantum state which is an eigenstate of the electronic molecular Hamiltonian ... to any exact symmetry of the electronic molecular Hamiltonian ...
... Molecularity in chemistry is the number of colliding molecular entities that are involved in a single reaction step ... A reaction involving one molecular entity is called unimolecular ... A reaction involving two molecular entities is called bimolecular ...
Famous quotes containing the words cloning and/or history:
“Language is as real, as tangible, in our lives as streets, pipelines, telephone switchboards, microwaves, radioactivity, cloning laboratories, nuclear power stations.”
—Adrienne Rich (b. 1929)
“Its a very delicate surgical operationto cut out the heart without killing the patient. The history of our country, however, is a very tough old patient, and well do the best we can.”
—Dudley Nichols, U.S. screenwriter. Jean Renoir. Sorel (Philip Merivale)