Military Intelligence Directorate (Syria) - Heads of Military Intelligence

Heads of Military Intelligence

  • Hikmat al-Shihabi (1970–1973)
  • Ali Duba (1973–2000)
  • Hassan Khalil (2000–2005)
  • Deputy director: Assef Shawkat (2000–2005)
  • Assef Shawkat (2005–2009)
  • Deputy director: Saeed Sammour (2005–2009)
  • Abdel-Fatah Qudsiyeh (2009–July 2012)
    • Head of Internal Affairs (branch 293): Rafiq Shahadah (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Damascus during the Syrian uprising. Advisor to President Bashar Al-Assad for strategic questions and military intelligence.
  • Rafiq Shahadah (July 2012–present)

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