Growth of the penis both before birth and during childhood and puberty is strongly influenced by testosterone and, to a lesser degree, growth hormone; but their value in the treatment of micropenis is mainly limited to conditions of hormone deficiency, such as hypopituitarism or hypogonadism.
Regardless of the cause of micropenis, if it is recognized in infancy, a brief course of testosterone is often prescribed (usually no more than 3 months). This usually induces a small amount of growth, confirming the likelihood of further growth at puberty, but rarely achieves normal size. No additional testosterone is given during childhood, to avoid unwanted virilization and bone maturation. (There also is some evidence that premature administration of testosterone can lead to reduced penis size in the adult.)
Testosterone treatment is resumed in adolescence only for boys with hypogonadism. Penile growth is completed at the end of puberty, similarly to the completion of height growth, and provision of extra testosterone to post-pubertal adults produces little or no further growth.
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