Sue et al. (2007) have expanded on the term microaggression by introducing four distinct forms of microaggression in the context of racial microaggression.:
|Microassault||An explicit racial derogation characterized primarily by verbal or nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim through name calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful discriminatory actions.|
|Microinsult||Characterized by communications that convey rudeness and insensitivity and demean a person’s racial heritage or identity.|
|Microinvalidation||Characterized by communications that exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person.|
|Microrape||Characterized by predatory non-physical prurient communications with the intent to penetrate the victim's emotional security on the basis of heteronormative impositions.|
Read more about this topic: Microaggression
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Famous quotes containing the word types:
“Hes one of those know-it-all types that, if you flatter the wig off him, he chatter like a goony bird at mating time.”
—Michael Blankfort. Lewis Milestone. Johnson (Reginald Gardner)
“He types his laboured columnweary drudge!
Senile fudge and solemn:
Spare, editor, to condemn
These dry leaves of his autumn.”
—Robertson Davies (b. 1913)
“Our children evaluate themselves based on the opinions we have of them. When we use harsh words, biting comments, and a sarcastic tone of voice, we plant the seeds of self-doubt in their developing minds.... Children who receive a steady diet of these types of messages end up feeling powerless, inadequate, and unimportant. They start to believe that they are bad, and that they can never do enough.”
—Stephanie Martson (20th century)