Medicine - Honors and Awards

Honors and Awards

The highest honor awarded in medicine is the Nobel Prize in Medicine, awarded since 1901 by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet.

Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine
1901–1925
  • Emil Behring (1901)
  • Ronald Ross (1902)
  • Niels Finsen (1903)
  • Ivan Pavlov (1904)
  • Robert Koch (1905)
  • Camillo Golgi / Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1906)
  • Alphonse Laveran (1907)
  • Élie Metchnikoff / Paul Ehrlich (1908)
  • Emil Kocher (1909)
  • Albrecht Kossel (1910)
  • Allvar Gullstrand (1911)
  • Alexis Carrel (1912)
  • Charles Richet (1913)
  • Robert Bárány (1914)
  • Jules Bordet (1919)
  • August Krogh (1920)
  • Archibald Hill / Otto Meyerhof (1922)
  • Frederick Banting / John Macleod (1923)
  • Willem Einthoven (1924)
1926–1950
  • Johannes Fibiger (1926)
  • Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1927)
  • Charles Nicolle (1928)
  • Christiaan Eijkman / Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1929)
  • Karl Landsteiner (1930)
  • Otto Warburg (1931)
  • Charles Scott Sherrington / Edgar Adrian (1932)
  • Thomas Morgan (1933)
  • George Whipple / George Minot / William Murphy (1934)
  • Hans Spemann (1935)
  • Henry Dale / Otto Loewi (1936)
  • Albert Szent-Györgyi (1937)
  • Corneille Heymans (1938)
  • Gerhard Domagk (1939)
  • Henrik Dam / Edward Doisy (1943)
  • Joseph Erlanger / Herbert Gasser (1944)
  • Alexander Fleming / Ernst Chain / Howard Florey (1945)
  • Hermann Muller (1946)
  • Carl Cori / Gerty Cori / Bernardo Houssay (1947)
  • Paul Müller (1948)
  • Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz (1949)
  • Edward Kendall / Tadeus Reichstein / Philip Hench (1950)
1951–1975
  • Max Theiler (1951)
  • Selman Waksman (1952)
  • Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann (1953)
  • John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins (1954)
  • Hugo Theorell (1955)
  • André Cournand / Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards (1956)
  • Daniel Bovet (1957)
  • George Beadle / Edward Tatum / Joshua Lederberg (1958)
  • Severo Ochoa / Arthur Kornberg (1959)
  • Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar (1960)
  • Georg von Békésy (1961)
  • Francis Crick / James D. Watson / Maurice Wilkins (1962)
  • John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley (1963)
  • Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen (1964)
  • François Jacob / André Lwoff / Jacques Monod (1965)
  • Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins (1966)
  • Ragnar Granit / Haldan Hartline / George Wald (1967)
  • Robert W. Holley / Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg (1968)
  • Max Delbrück / Alfred Hershey / Salvador Luria (1969)
  • Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler / Julius Axelrod (1970)
  • Earl Sutherland, Jr. (1971)
  • Gerald Edelman / Rodney Porter (1972)
  • Karl von Frisch / Konrad Lorenz / Nikolaas Tinbergen (1973)
  • Albert Claude / Christian de Duve / George Palade (1974)
  • David Baltimore / Renato Dulbecco / Howard Temin (1975)
1976–2000
  • Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek (1976)
  • Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally / Rosalyn Yalow (1977)
  • Werner Arber / Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith (1978)
  • Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield (1979)
  • Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset / George Snell (1980)
  • Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel / Torsten Wiesel (1981)
  • Sune Bergström / Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane (1982)
  • Barbara McClintock (1983)
  • Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein (1984)
  • Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein (1985)
  • Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986)
  • Susumu Tonegawa (1987)
  • James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion / George H. Hitchings (1988)
  • J. Michael Bishop / Harold E. Varmus (1989)
  • Joseph Murray / E. Donnall Thomas (1990)
  • Erwin Neher / Bert Sakmann (1991)
  • Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs (1992)
  • Richard J. Roberts / Phillip Sharp (1993)
  • Alfred G. Gilman / Martin Rodbell (1994)
  • Edward B. Lewis / Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard / Eric F. Wieschaus (1995)
  • Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel (1996)
  • Stanley B. Prusiner (1997)
  • Robert F. Furchgott / Louis Ignarro / Ferid Murad (1998)
  • Günter Blobel (1999)
  • Arvid Carlsson / Paul Greengard / Eric Kandel (2000)
2001–present
  • Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt / Paul Nurse (2001)
  • Sydney Brenner / H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston (2002)
  • Paul Lauterbur / Peter Mansfield (2003)
  • Richard Axel / Linda B. Buck (2004)
  • Barry Marshall / Robin Warren (2005)
  • Andrew Fire / Craig Mello (2006)
  • Mario Capecchi / Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies (2007)
  • Harald zur Hausen / Luc Montagnier / Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008)
  • Elizabeth Blackburn / Carol W. Greider / Jack W. Szostak (2009)
  • Robert G. Edwards (2010)
  • Bruce Beutler / Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) (2011)
  • John B. Gurdon / Shinya Yamanaka (2012)
  • Complete list
  • (1901–1925)
  • (1926–1950)
  • (1951–1975)
  • (1976–2000)
  • (2001–2025)

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    Aeschylus (525–456 B.C.)