McMahon Line

The McMahon Line is a line agreed to by Britain and Tibet as part of the Simla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914. It is the effective boundary between China and India, although its legal status is disputed by the Chinese government.

The line is named after Sir Henry McMahon, foreign secretary of the British-run Government of India and the chief negotiator of the convention. It extends for 550 miles (890 km) from Bhutan in the west to 160 miles (260 km) east of the great bend of the Brahmaputra River in the east, largely along the crest of the Himalayas. Simla (along with the McMahon Line) was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention. This convention was renounced in 1921. After Simla, the McMahon Line was forgotten until 1935, when British civil service officer Olaf Caroe convinced the government to publish the Simla Convention and use the McMahon Line on official maps.

The McMahon Line is regarded by India as the legal national border. It is disputed by China. As recently as 2003, the Dalai Lama said that the disputed region was part of Tibet, but he reversed his position in 2008, acknowledging the legitimacy of the McMahon Line and the Indian claim to the region.

China rejects the Simla Accord, contending that the Tibetan government was not sovereign and therefore did not have the power to conclude treaties. Chinese maps show some 65,000 square kilometres (25,000 sq mi) of the territory south of the line as part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, known as South Tibet in China. Chinese forces briefly occupied this area during the Sino-Indian War of 1962-63. China does recognize a Line of Actual Control which includes a portion of the "so called McMahon line" in the eastern part of its border with India, according to a 1959 diplomatic note by Prime Minister Zhou Enlai.

Other articles related to "mcmahon line, line":

McMahon Line - History - India and China Dispute Boundary
... Zhou Enlai offered to accept the McMahon Line in 1956, but only in the context of border negotiations as equals, because simply accepting the British boundary would leave the stigma of the ... before the conference was the McMahon Line ... as the boundary, although in some places this line is slightly north of the McMahon Line ...
Events Leading To The Sino-Indian War - Friendly Relations
... or ambiguities, Prime Minister Nehru stated in Parliament in 1950 that "Our maps show that the McMahon Line is our boundary and that is our boundary...we stand by that boundary and we ... Indian negotiators presented a frontier map to the Chinese that included the McMahon Line and the Chinese side did not object ... In some places, this line is a few kilometres north of the McMahon Line ...
Simla Accord (1914) - Aftermath
... Anglo-Russian Convention was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921, but the McMahon Line was forgotten until 1935, when interest was revived by civil service officer Olaf Caroe ... The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937 ... In the late 1950s, the McMahon Line became a source of tension between China and India ...
Sino-Indian War - Confrontation At Thag La
... Dhola lay north of the McMahon Line but south of the ridges along which India interpreted the McMahon Line to run ... fire on the Indians under their belief that they were north of the McMahon Line ... A long line of mules and porters had also been observed supporting the buildup and reinforcement of positions south of the Thag La Ridge ...
Sino-Indian Relations - After Independence - 1980s
... approved a plan to upgrade the deployment of forces around the Line of Actual Control to avoid unilateral redefinitions of the line ... Sumdorong Chu Valley in Arunachal Pradesh (formerly NEFA), which is north of the McMahon Line as drawn on the Simla Treaty map but south of the ridge which ... Chu valley "seemed to lie to the north of the McMahon line but is south of the highest ridge in the area, and the McMahon line is meant to follow the highest points" according to the Indian claims ...

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