Maipurean Languages - Languages - Aikhenvald (1999)

Aikhenvald (1999)

Apart from minor decisions on whether a variety is a language or a dialect, changing names, and not addressing several poorly attested languages, Aikhenvald departs from Kaufman in breaking up the Southern Outlier and Western branches of Southern Maipurean and assigning Salumã and Lapachu ('Apolista') to what is left of Southern Outlier ('South Arawak'); in breaking up the Maritime branch of Northern Maipurean, though keeping Aruán and Palikur together; and in remaining agnostic about the sub-grouping of the North Amazonian branch of Northern Maipurean. The following breakdown uses Aikhenvald's nomenclature followed by Kaufman's.

North Arawak = Northern Maipurean
  • Rio Branco = Wapishanan (2)
  • Palikur = Palikur + Aruán (3)
  • Caribbean = Ta-Maipurean (8)
  • North Amazonian = Upper Amazon (17 attested)
South and South-Western Arawak = Southern Maipurean
  • South Arawak = Terena + Moxos group + Salumã + Lapachu (11)
  • Pareci–Xingu = Central Maipurean (6)
  • South-Western Arawak = Piro (5)
  • Campa (6)
  • Amuesha (1)
  • Chamicuro (1)

Aikhenvald classifies Kaufman's unclassified languages apart from Morique, but leaves unclassified 15 extinct languages which Kaufman had placed in various branches of Maipurean.

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