The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers. The same is true of children born to poor parents, and of children born at high altitude; these are all examples of Simpson's paradox.
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... Additional support for the hypothesis that birth weight and mortality can be acted on independently came from the analysis of birth data from Colorado compared with the birth weight distribution in the US as a whole, the distribution curve in Colorado is also shifted to lower weights ... The overall child mortality of Colorado children is the same as that for US children however, and if one corrects for the lower weights as above, one finds that babies of a given (corrected) weight are just as likely to die, whether they are from Colorado or not ...
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“To make advice agreeable, try paradox or rhyme.”
—Mason Cooley (b. 1927)