LOCOS

LOCOS, short for LOCal Oxidation of Silicon, is a microfabrication process where silicon dioxide is formed in selected areas on a silicon wafer having the Si-SiO2 interface at a lower point than the rest of the silicon surface.

This technology was developed to insulate MOS transistors from each other. The main goal is to create a silicon oxide insulating structure that penetrates under the surface of the wafer, so that the Si-SiO2 interface occurs at a lower point than the rest of the silicon surface. This cannot be easily achieved by etching field oxide. Thermal oxidation of selected regions surrounding transistors is used instead. The oxygen penetrates in depth of the wafer, reacts with silicon and transforms it in to silicon oxide. In this way, an immersed structure is formed.

The immersed insulating barrier limits the transistor cross-talk.

Read more about LOCOS:  Process, Function of Layers and Structures

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