List Of Studies In Neuro-linguistic Programming
Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a discredited approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, USA in the 1970s. The title asserts a connection between the neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic"), and behavioural patterns learned through experience ("programming") that proponents speculate can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.
The founders, Bandler and Grinder, have made unsubstantiated claims that NLP is capable of addressing problems such as phobias, depression, habit disorder, psychosomatic illnesses, and learning disorders. Their stated aim was in "finding ways to help people have better, fuller and richer lives." They claimed that if the effective patterns of behaviour of exceptional people could be modeled then these patterns could be acquired by others. NLP has been adopted by private therapists, including hypnotherapists, and in management workshops and seminars marketed to business and government.
Reviews of empirical research on NLP show that NLP contains numerous factual errors, and has failed to produce reliable results for the claims for effectiveness made by NLP's originators and proponents.According to Devilly,NLP is no longer as prevalent as it was in the 1970s and 1980s. Criticisms go beyond the lack of empirical evidence for effectiveness; critics say that NLP exhibits pseudoscientific characteristics, title, concepts and terminology. NLP is used as an example of pseudoscience for facilitating the teaching of scientific literacy at the professional and university level. NLP also appears on peer reviewed expert-consensus based lists of discredited interventions. In research designed to identify the "quack factor" in modern mental health practice, Norcross et al. (2006) list NLP as possibly or probably discredited for treatment of behavioural problems. In research on discredited addiction treatments, Norcross et al. (2010) list NLP in the top ten most discredited interventions, and Glasner-Edwards and Rawson (2010) list NLP as "certainly discredited".
Read more about List Of Studies In Neuro-linguistic Programming: Techniques or Set of Practices, Intellectual Property Disputes, Associations, Certification and Practitioner Standards
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