List of States in The Holy Roman Empire (B)

This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter B:

Name Type Circle Bench Formed Notes
Baar Landgraviate Swab 1500: To Swabian Circle
Babenhausen Principality 1237: 1st mention of the Lordship of Babenhausen
1100s: Babenhausen and Schonegg part of Lordship of Kellmunz
1200-1300s: To Lords of Schonegg
1378: To Lords of Rechberg
1539: Anton Fugger bought Lordship of Babenhausen
1803: Lordships of Babenhausen, Boos and Kettershausen erected into Principality of Babenhausen for Fugger family
1806: To Bavaria
Area: 52 km²; Pop. 11,000
Babenhausen-Mindelheim-Cellmünz Lordship 1432: Partitioned from Staufeneck-Babenhausen 1487: Divided into Frundsburg and Kronburg
Baden Margraviate PR c960 1190: Partitioned into Baden-Baden and Baden-Hachberg
1362: HRE Margrave
1387: Received a part of the County of Eberstein
1500: To Swabian Circle
1535: Partitioned into Upper Margraviate of Baden (Baden-Baden) and Lower Margraviate of Baden (Baden-Durlach)
1582: HRE Council of Princes
1771: Baden-Baden line extinct; Baden reunited
1803: Electorate
1806: Joined Confederation of the Rhine as a Grand Duchy
1871: Joined the German Empire
Title:Grand Duke of Baden, Duke of Zähringen, Landgrave of Nellenburg, etc., Overlord & Hereditary Lord in the Baar & of Stühlingen, Heiligenberg, Hausen, Möskirch, Hohenhöwen, Wildenstein & Waldsberg, Mosbach & Dürn, Bischofsheim, Hardheim & Lauda, the Klettgau, Krautheim, Wertheim, Neudenau & Billigheim, Count of Salem, Petershausen & Hanau
Baden-Baden Margraviate Swab PR 1190: Partitioned from Baden 1291: Partitioned into Baden-Baden, Baden-Eberstein and Baden-Pforzheim
1335: Divided between Baden-Eberstein and Baden-Pforzheim
1348: Partitioned from Baden-Pforzheim
1515: Partitioned into itself, Baden-Durlach and Baden-Sponheim
1536: Partitioned into itself and Baden-Rodemachern
1588: Annexed to Baden-Rodemachern
1622: Partitioned from Baden-Durlach
1771: United to form Baden
Baden-Durlach Margraviate Swab PR 1515: Partitioned from Baden-Baden 1577: Partitioned into itself, Baden-Hachberg and Baden-Sausenburg
1771: United to form Baden
Baden-Eberstein Margraviate 1291: Partitioned from Baden-Baden 1353: Annexed to Baden-Pforzheim
Baden-Hochberg Margraviate Swab PR 1190: Partitioned from Baden Also named Baden-Hachberg
1290: Partitioned into itself and Baden-Sausenburg
1415: Annexed to Baden-Baden
1482: Partitioned from Baden-Baden
1488: Annexed to Baden-Baden
1577: Partitioned from Baden-Durlach
1591: Annexed to Baden-Durlach
Baden-Pforzheim Margraviate n/a n/a 1291: Partitioned from Baden-Baden 1315: Partitioned into itself and Baden-Baden
1361: Annexed to Baden-Baden
Baden-Rodemachern Margraviate Swab 1537: Partitioned from Baden-Baden 1575: Partitioned into itself and Baden-Rodenheim
1596: Annexed to Baden-Durlach
1622: Partitioned from Baden-Durlach
1666: Annexed to Baden-Baden
Baden-Rodenheim Margraviate Swab 1575: Partitioned from Baden-Rodemachern 1620: Annexed to Baden-Durlach
Baden-Sausenberg Margraviate Swab PR 1290: Partitioned from Baden-Hachberg 1503: Annexed to Baden-Baden
1577: Partitioned from Baden-Durlach
1604: Annexed to Baden-Durlach
Baden-Sponheim Margraviate Upp Rhen 1515: Partitioned from Baden-Baden 1533: Annexed to Baden-Baden
Badenweiler Lordship 1028: First mentioned
1503: Inherited by Baden-Baden
Baindt Abbacy Swab 1793: Council of Princes
Bamberg Bishopric Franc EC 1007 c1242: Prince-Bishopric
1500: Franconian Circle
1793: Council of Princes
1802: Annexed to Bavaria
1803: Secularized to Bavaria
Bar
Bar-le-Duc
Barrois
Duchy Upp Rhen 951 951: County
959-1033: Under Lorraine
1197-1214: Union of Bar and Luxemburg
1301: Vassal of King of France for the Western part of his territory (Barrois Mouvant) and vassal of the HRE for the Eastern part
1354: Emperor Charles IV granted title of Margrave of Pont-a-Mousson and rank of Prince to Duke of Bar
1399: Bar inherited Lordship of Cassel
1473: Union of Bar and Duchy of Lorraine
1480: Permanently united
1508: Inherited by Lorraine
1582: HRE Council of Princes
1634-1659, 1670–1697, 1702-1714: French occupation
1766: Together with Lorraine, permanently annexed to France
Barby County Upp Sax 1497 961: 1st mention of Barby
974: Emperor gave Barby to his sister, Mathilde, Abbess of Quedlinburg
1050: To Lords of Arnstein as an imperial fief
Partitioned into: Barby-Arnstein (1209–1284), Barby-Barby (1213-1651), Barby-Lindow (1211–1372), Barby-Mühlingen (1565–1659) and Barby-Ruppin
1497: HRE County
1524: Barby-Rupin to Brandenburg
1651: Barby-Barby to Barby-Mühlingen (1360–1524)
1659: Barby-Mühlingen to Saxe-Weissenfels
1372: Barby-Lindow to Anhalt
1659: To Elector of Saxony
Barmstedt Lordship Acquired by Rantzau
Basel Bishopric Upp Rhen EC 999 1579: Allied to the Swiss Confederation
1792: Annexed to the Rauracian Republic
1793: Council of Princes
1801: Mediatised to Baden and France
Basel Free Imperial City n/a 374: 1st mentioned as "Basilea"
To Bishops of Basel
1356: Acquired sovereign rights (own currency, customs and judiciary)
1386: Free Imperial City
1501: Joined Swiss Confederation
1648: Left the Empire
Bassenheim Lordship to Waldbott of Bassenheim
1729: HRE Lordship
Bavaria Kingdom Bav EL 6th century 888: Bavaria a stem duchy
889-1180: Ruled by the Welfs
1180-1918: Ruled by the Wittelsbachs
1185: Inherited lands of Burgraves of Regensburg
1214: Invested with County Palatinate of the Rhine
1238: Inherited lands of Counts of Valai
Incorporated lands of Counts of Bogen
Incorporated lands of Counts of Wassenburg
1255: First division into Upper (including Palatinate and Regensburg) and Lower Bavaria
1310: Division of Upper Bavaria into Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Ingolstadt
1314: Division into Palatinate (including Upper Palatinate) and Bavaria
1340: Lower Bavaria line died out
1349: Partition of Wittelsbach patrimony into: Upper Bavaria and Brandenburg; Bavaria-Munich; Lower Bavaria; and Holland, Zeeland, Frisia and Hainaut
1392: Division into Bavaria-Ingolstadt (extinct 1447), Bavaria-Landshut (extinct 1503) and Bavaria-Munich
1500: Bavarian Circle
1545: Bavaria reunited after many divisions
1582: HRE Council of Princes
1618: Acquired Mundelheim from Barons of Maxlrain
Acquired Landgraviate of Leuchtenberg
1623: Electoral vote of Palatinate and Upper Palatinate transferred to Bavaria
1806: Became a Kingdom, then joined Confederation of the Rhine
Title: King of Bavaria, Count-Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Franconia & in Swabia, etc.
Bavaria-Ingolstadt Duchy 1392: Partitioned from Bavaria-Landshut 1445: Annexed to Bavaria-Munich
Bavaria-Landshut Duchy 1353: Partitioned from Lower Bavaria 1503: Annexed to Bavaria-Munich
Bavaria-Munich Duchy 1392: Partitioned from Bavaria-Landshut 1505: Became D. of Bavaria
Bavaria-Straubing Duchy 1353: Partitioned from Lower Bavaria 1425: Divided between Bavaria-Ingolstadt, Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Munich
Bayer-Naumburg Lordship 1316: Partitioned from Querfurt 1496: Annexed to Mansfeld
Bayreuth Principality 1194: 1st mention of Bayreuth
1248: To Counts of Zollern & Burgraves of Nuremberg
1363: Counts of Zollern as HRE Princes
1398: Principality
1420-1440: Under Nuremberg
1457-1486: Administered by Ansbach
1495-1515: Administered by Ansbach
1500: Franconian Circle
1557-1603: Administered by Ansbach
1791: Integrated into Prussia
1806: French administration
1810: To Bavaria
Title: Prince and Margrave of Bayreuth
Beckenried Abbacy HRE Abbacy
Bedburg County 1465: Partitioned from Neuenahr 1519: Annexed to Mörs
Beichlingen Lordship 1144 1275: Partitioned into Beichlingen-Beichlingen and Beichlingen-Rothenburg
1567: Annexed to Gleichen
Beilstein County 1500: Westphalian Circle
1512: Electoral Rhenish Circle
1679: The Lordship became a County (for House of Metternich)
Belfort Jurisdiction 1200s: To Counts of Montbeliard
1307: Granted a charter
To Austria
1648: Ceded to France
Louis XIV of France gave it to Cardinal Mazarin
Benevento Duchy 576 899: Atenulf I of Capua conquered Benevento and united the 2 duchies
1053: To Papal States
Bentheim
Count of Bentheim, Tecklenburg, Steinfurt & Limburg, Lord of Rheda, Wevelinghoven, Hoya, Alpen, Helpenstein, Baron of Lennep, Hereditary Advocate of Köln
County (1182)
1486: HRE County
Low Rhen WE 1050 1115: Passed to Count Otto of Salm
Marriage of Otto's heiress, Sophia (d.1176), Countess of Rheineck, Salm and Bentheim to Dirk VI, Count of Holland
1146-1182: A fief of Bishopric of Utrecht
1176: Passed to Counts of Holland
1263: Annexed County of Tecklenburg
1277: Partitioned into Bentheim-Tecklenburg and Bentheim-Bentheim
1421/1468: Bentheim became an immediate fief of the Empire
1500: Westphalian Circle
1530-1643: To County of Steinfurt
1606/1610: Division into Bentheim-Tecklenburg (with Rheda and Hohenlimburg) and Bentheim-Steinfurt
1752: Bentheim mortgaged to and was seized by Elector of Hanover
1804: Annexed to Steinfurt
1806: Bentheim mediatised to Berg
1810: Annexed to France
1815: To Hanover
Bentheim-Alpen County (1606–1629)
Bentheim-Bentheim County (1277–1530, 1643–1753, 1753–1803) 1277: Partitioned from Bentheim (like Bentheim-Tecklenburg) 1530: Line of Bentheim-Bentheim became extinct; Bentheim granted to Arnold II of Bentheim-Steinfurt
1753-1803: Seized by the Elector of Hanover
1803: Bentheim reunited with Bentheim-Steinfurt
Bentheim-Limburg County (1606–1632)
Bentheim-Lingen County (1450–1555)
Bentheim-Steinfurt County (1454-1803)
Prince of Bentheim-Steinfurt in Prussia
Low Rhen WE 1454: Split off from Co. of Bentheim-Bentheim 1643: Partitioned into Bentheim-Steinfurt and Bentheim-Bentheim
1806: Mediatised to Berg (which obtained Bentheim) and Prussia (which obtained Steinfurt)
Bentheim-Tecklenburg County (1277–1557)
1817: Prince of Bentheim-Tecklenburg in Prussia
1277: Partitioned from Bentheim (like Bentheim-Bentheim)
Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda County (1606–1806) 1606: Partitioned from Bentheim-Steinfurt 1806: Mediatised to Prussia
Bentinck
HRE Count of Bentinck and Aldenburg, Lord of the free Lordship of Knyphausen, Noble Lord of Varel
HRE Counts (1732) 1733/1800 immediate Lords of Knyphausen & Varel
Aug 1806-1807 sovereign Lords of Knyphausen & Varel
1814/15 Lords of Knyphausen & Varel under the overlordship of Oldenburg
Berchtesgaden
Prince, Provost and Lord of Berchtesgaden
Provostry Bav 1491 1108: Abbacy
1491: Provostry of the HRE
1500: Bavarian Circle
1803:Annexed to Salzburg
1793: Council of Princes
1803: Annexed to Salzburg
1805: Annexed to Austria
1809: Annexed to Bavaria
Berg Duchy Low Rhen PR 1077 1077: County, to the counts of Berg (later counts of Isenberg, Altena and Limburg Styrum), an offshoot of the House of Ezzonen
1218: County, to Duchy of Limburg
1380: Duchy
1437: To Duchy of Julich
1511: To Duchy of Cleves
1521: United with Mark and Cleves
1582: HRE Council of Princes
1609: War of Successions
1614: To Palatinate-Neuburg
1685: To the Electorate of the Palatinate
1799: To Bavaria
1801: Annexed to France
1803: To Bavaria
1811: To France
1815: To Prussia
Bern
Berne
Imperial Free City (1218) 1218: Split off from Zähringen 1191: Founded by Duke Berthold V of Zahringen
1353: Joined the Swiss Confederation
1415: Invaded and acquired Aargau
1536: Invaded and acquired Vaud
1648: Left the Empire
1798: French occupation
Besançon
Archbishopric EC 1512: Burgundian Circle
1792: Annexed to France
1793: Council of Princes
Besançon
Imperial City (1184) Burg 1300s: Taken by Dukes of Burgundy
1477-1674: Passed to Habsburgs
1648: Annexed by Free County (a special Co.) of Burgundy ("Franche-Comté")
1674: Ceded to France
Biberach an der Riß Imperial City Swab SW 1180 1803: Annexed to Württemberg
Billungenmark Margraviate 928 983: Conquered by the Bodriches
Bilstein County 1073 1145: 1st mention of "Counts of Bilstein"
1301: Line of counts died out; Bilstein sold to Hesse
1303: Annexed to Hesse
Birkenfeld County (1569)
1817: Principality
1444: Part of Zweibrücken
1801: Annexed by France
1816: Prussian rule
1817: Principality of Birkenfeld in personal union with Oldenburg
Bitburg Abbacy
Bitsch Lordship To Zweibrücken
Blamont Lordship
Blankenburg County (1123)
1707: Principality of Imperial immediacy
Low Sax c1082
1180: Partitioned from the older Duchy of Saxony
Before 1180: Fief of older Duchy of Saxony, till emperor deposed Henry the Lion
1180: As fief to Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt at the carve-up of the older Duchy of Saxony
1368: Inherited by County of Regenstein
1599: Counts extinct, fief reverted to Halberstadt, prince-bishop enfeoffed relative from House of Welf
1651: In personal union with the Brunswick-Lunenburgian principality of Wolfenbüttel
1707: End of Halberstadt's overlordship
1731: Brunswick-Lunenburgian Wolfenbüttel line extinct, Blankenburg inherited Wolfenbüttel
1806: Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia
1814: Blankenburg and Pr. of Wolfenbüttel merged in Duchy of Brunswick
Blankenheim Lordship (1112)
1380: County
1461: HRE County of Manderscheid and Blankenheim
1149: Partitioned from Blankenheim-Schleiden 1112: 1st mention of Lord of Blankenheim
Acquired Lordships of Kronenburg, Junkerath, Dollendorf, Gerolstein, Erp, Neuerburg, Oberkail, Falkenstein, Bettingen, Manderscheid, Osann-Monzel
1406: Counts of Blankenheim died out; passed by female succession to Lords of Heinsberg
To Counts of Manderscheid
1699: Imperial Estate
Counts of Manderscheid-Blankenheim died out; passed by marriage to Counts of Sternberg
1803: Annexed to France
1816: To Prussia
Blankenheim and Gerolstein County Low Rhen 1488: Partitioned from Blankenheim 1533: Partitioned into Blankenheim and Gerolstein and Bettingen
Blankenheim-Schleiden Lordship c1115 1149: Partitioned into Blankenheim and Schleiden
Bludenz County 1394: To Austria
Blumenegg Lordship
1396: Imperial County
1804: Lordship of Blumenegg-Sankt Gerold to Austria
Bohemia Principality (845)
Duchy
1198: Kingdom
None EL c890: Joined the Empire 1356: Prince-Elector
Bonndorf County Swab
Boos Lordship 1803: To Principality of Babenhausen for Fugger house
Bopfingen Imperial Free City Swab SW c1250 1803: Annexed to Württemberg
Bouillon County
Duchy
959; 1496; 1559 1095, 1522: Annexed to Prince-Bishopric of Lüttich (Liège)
1552, 1676: Annexed to France
Brabant Landgraviate (1085/1086)
1090: Duchy1183/1184: Duchy
Claimed status of archduchy
Burg PR 1000s: Emerged from division of the Duchy of Lower Lorraine into several feudal states 1283: John I of Brabant bought the Duchy of Limburg from Adolph V of Berg
1430: Passed to D. of Burgundy
1477: Passed to the House of Habsburg
1512: Burgundian Circle
1556: Passed to the Spanish Habsburgs
1582: HRE Council of Princes
1609: northern Brabant awarded to the United Provinces; southern portion remain part of Spanish (later Austrian) Netherlands
Brakel Imperial City Low Rhen RH Held by Bp. of Paderborn
Brandenburg Margraviate
1356: HRE Prince-Elector
Upp Sax EL 1157: Originally created as the "Northern March" 1415: Hohenzollerns purchase Brandenburg from HRE
Brandenburg Bishopric Upp Sax EC 949 1569: Annexed to the secular Electorate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg-Ansbach Margraviate Franc PR 1440 as a partition of Bgv. Nuremberg 1582: HRE Council of Princes
1791: Passed to Brandenburg
Brandenburg-Bayreuth Margraviate Franc PR 1440 as a partition of Bgv. Nuremberg 1582: HRE Council of Princes
1769: Passed to Brandenburg-Ansbach
Brandenburg-Kulmbach Margraviate 1655: Partitioned from Brandenburg-Bayreuth 1726: Re-annexed to Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Brandenburg-Küstrin Margraviate 1535: Partitioned from Brandenburg 1571: Re-annexed to Brandenburg
Brauneck County 1230 as a partition of Hohenlohe Partitioned several times.
1340, 1391, 1448: All re-annexed to Hohenlohe
Breda Barony 1000s: A direct fief of the Holy Roman Emperor
1327: Adelheid of Gaveren sold Breda to John III, Duke of Brabant
1350: Breda sold to John II of Wassenaar (d.1377)
1403: To Counts of Nassau by the marriage of Johanna of Polanen, heiress of Breda, to Engelbert I of Nassau
Bregenz County Swab SW 950 802: 1st mention of Bregenz castle
926: 1st mention of Ulrich VI as "Count of Bregenz"
970: Division of the House of Bregenz (Pfullendorf, Lustenau)
Annexed to Tübingen
1152/1160: Line of Counts of Bregenz died out
1171: Marriage of Hugo II (d.1182), Count Palatine of Tübingen with Elizabeth (d.1216), heiress of Montfort and Bregenz
1180: Annexed to Montfort
1451/1458: Annexed to Austria
1782: Annexed to Bavaria
Brehna County
Breisgau County
Landgraviate
n/a SW 771 1077: Annexed by Zähringen
1512: Austrian Circle
Breisgau Duchy Aust SW 1801 1803: Reconstituted as Breisgau-Modena
Breisgau-Modena Duchy Aust SW 1803 1805: Divided between Baden and Württemberg
Breitenbrunn HRE Lordship
Breiteneck
Breitenegg
HRE Lordship (1631) Bav 1129: Breitenegg castle and Lordship of Breitenbrunn owned by Lords of Breitenbrunn
1247-1289: 1st certain owner was Werner V of Laaber
1500: Bavarian Circle
Sold to Counts of Hirschberg
1302: Sold to Hadamar II of Laaber
1433: Bought by Heinrich of Gumppenberg
1463: Reddemed by Ulrich of Laaber
1465: Sold to Konrad of Pappenheim
1473: Sold to Martin and Ludwig of Wildenstein
1583: Wildenstein line died out
1592: Lordship divided between Neuburg and Bavaria
1624: Given by Maximilian I to Tilly (extinct, 1724) as a gift
1744: Inherited by Lords of Gumppenberg
1792: Sold to Karl Theordor of Bavaria in personal union
Bremen Archbishopric (1072)
1180: HRE Prince-Archbishopric
1648: Duchy
Low Sax EC 1180: partitioned from the Duchy of Saxony 805: Bishopric founded
848-1072: In personal union with Bishopric of Hamburg
1648: secularised as Duchy of Bremen, ruled as Bremen-Verden in personal union with the Principality of Verden
Bremen Imperial City (1646) Low Sax RH 1202 1358: Joined Hanseatic League
1810: Annexed by France
1815: Free City
Bremen-Verden Duchy of Bremen and Principality of Verden Low Sax 1648: secularised Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen and Prince-Bishopric of Verden, always ruled in personal union 1648: In personal union (p.u.) with Sweden
1712: Danish occupation
1715: Sold to the Electorate of Hanover
1719: In personal union with Hanover
1807: Annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia
1810: Annexed to France
1813: In personal union with Hanover
1814/1823: Merged in the Kingdom of Hanover as Stade Region
Brehna Barony 1156 1290: Annexed by Saxe-Wittenberg
Bretzenheim
HRE Prince of Bretzenheim and Count of Lindau
HRE Count of Bretzenheim (1774)
1790: HRE Principality
Upp Rhen 1790 for the Wittelsbach-Bretzenheim branch 1769: Counts of Heydeck
To Velen
1780: immediate Lord of Bretzenheim
1790: Imperial estate
1802: Central German territories annexed by Hesse-Darmstadt
1803: Prince granted County of Lindau am Bodensee
1804: Southern German territories annexed by Austria
Brixen Bishopric (1027)
1179: Prince-Bishopric
Aust EC 1179 1512: Austrian Circle
1793: Council of Princes
1803: Secularized and annexed by Austria to Krain (Carniola)
1805: To Bavaria
1814: To Austria
1918: To Italy
Broich Lordship 1093: 1st mention of Lords of Broich 883: Broich castle for defense against Viking attacks
Under overlordship of Dukes of Berg
Freed from Dukes of Berg
1372: Line of Lords of Broich became extinct; passed to Counts of Limburg-Styrum
1413: Dukes of Berg regained overlordship after decline of Counts of Limburg
1432: Dukes of Cleves conquered Broich
1439: Start of new line called Counts of Limburg-Broich
1508: To Counts of Dhaun-Falkenstein
1682: To Counts of Leiningen
1806: Lordship of Broich abolished.
Bruchhausen County 1199 1234: Partitioned
1338, 1388: Annexed by County of Hoya
Bruchsal and Odenheim Abbacy 1793: Council of Princes
Brunswick Duchy n/a n/a 1267: Division into Brunswick and Luneburg
Brunswick-Bevern Duchy 1666: Partitioned from Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1735: Annexed to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1735: Partitioned from Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Brunswick-Calenberg Duchy Low Sax PR 1495: Partitoned from Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1584: Annexed to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen Duchy Low Sax PR 1641: Partitioned from Brunswick-Lüneburg 1692: Became the Electorate of Hanover
Brunswick-Celle Duchy Low Sax PR 1527: Partitioned from Brunswick-Lüneburg 1569: Partitioned into Brunswick-Dannenburg and Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Celle Duchy Low Sax PR 1641: Partitioned from Brunswick-Lüneburg 1705: Annexed to Hanover
Brunswick-Göttingen Duchy n/a n/a 1279: Partitioned from Brunswick 1345: Partitioned into itself and Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1442: Annexed to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Brunswick-Grubenhagen Duchy Low Sax PR 1279: Partitioned from Brunswick 1322: Partitioned into itself and Brunswick-Osterode
1526: Annexed to Brunswick-Osterode
Brunswick-Lüneburg
Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg
Duchies of Brunswick and Luneburg (1235) Low Sax PR 1235: Emperor Frederick II created duchies of Brunswick and Luneburg
1267: Division into Brunswick and Lüneburg
1285: Duchy of Brunswick divided into Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Brunswick Göttingen and Brunswick-Grubenhagen
1292: Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel line died out
1345: New line of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel founded
1369: Line of dukes of Lüneburg died out
1369: To Saxony
1388: Lüneburg incorporated into Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1432: Brunswick divided into Brunswick-Calenberg and Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1463: Elder Brunswick-Göttingen died out
1396: Brunswick-Grubenhagen line died out
1527: Partitioned
1582: Inherited 1/2 of County of Hoya
1585: Inherited County of Diepholz
1633: Inherited Principality of Grubenhagen
1689: Inherited Duchy of Launeburg
Inherited by Calenberg (personal union)
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Duchy Low Sax PR 1345: Partitioned from Brunswick-Göttingen 1373: Partitioned into itself, Brunswick-Einbeck and Brunswick-Lüneburg
1495: Partitioned into itself and Brunswick-Calenberg
1666: Partitioned into itself and Brunswick-Bevern
1735: Partitioned into itself and Brunswick-Bevern
Buchau Abbacy (c. 770)
1447: HRE Princess-Abbess
Swab 1625: Acquired Lordship of Strassberg
1793: Council of Princes
1803: Secularized and given to Prince of Thurn und Taxis
1806: Annexed to Württemberg; Strassberg to Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Buchau Imperial City Swab SW c1250 1803: Mediatized to Thurn and Taxis
1806 annexed by Württemberg
Buchhorn (Friedrichshafen) Imperial City Swab SW 1089 1803: Mediatized to Württemberg
Burgau Margraviate 1212 1301: Acquired by Austrian Habsburgs
1304: Imperial fief of Burgau invested in sons of King Albert I
Burgbrohl Lordship 1451: Partitioned from Saffig 1533: Annexed to Saffig-Olbrück
Burgundy
Franche-Comté
Free County (915)
County Palatine
Burg PR 1127 1330: Passed to D. of Burgundy
1405-1556: To Dukes of Burgundy
1556: To Habsburg Kings of Spain
1678: Annexed to France
Burgundy Duchy 1582: HRE Council of Princes
Bürresheim
Burresheim
Lordship
Burtscheid Abbacy 997 1793: Council of Princes
Butzweiler Lordship
Buxheim Abbacy

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    As no one can tell what was the Roman pronunciation, each nation makes the Latin conform, for the most part, to the rules of its own language; so that with us of the vowels only A has a peculiar sound.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

    Every morning I woke in dread, waiting for the day nurse to go on her rounds and announce from the list of names in her hand whether or not I was for shock treatment, the new and fashionable means of quieting people and of making them realize that orders are to be obeyed and floors are to be polished without anyone protesting and faces are to be made to be fixed into smiles and weeping is a crime.
    Janet Frame (b. 1924)

    An ... important antidote to American democracy is American gerontocracy. The positions of eminence and authority in Congress are allotted in accordance with length of service, regardless of quality. Superficial observers have long criticized the United States for making a fetish of youth. This is unfair. Uniquely among modern organs of public and private administration, its national legislature rewards senility.
    John Kenneth Galbraith (b. 1908)

    When Catholicism goes bad it becomes the world-old, world-wide religio of amulets and holy places and priestcraft. Protestantism, in its corresponding decay, becomes a vague mist of ethical platitudes. Catholicism is accused of being too much like all the other religions; Protestantism of being insufficiently like a religion at all. Hence Plato, with his transcendent Forms, is the doctor of Protestants; Aristotle, with his immanent Forms, the doctor of Catholics.
    —C.S. (Clive Staples)