- Leaves have evolved multiple times - see Evolutionary history of plants. They have evolved not only in land plants, but also in various algae, like kelp.
- Prickles, thorns and spines are all modified plant tissues that have evolved to prevent or limit herbivory, these structures have evolved independently a number of times.
- Stimulant toxins: Plants which are only distantly related to each other, such as coffee and tea, produce caffeine to deter predators.
- The aerial rootlets found in ivy (Hedera) are similar to those of the climbing hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris) and some other vines. These rootlets are not derived from a common ancestor but have the same function of clinging to whatever support is available.
- Flowering plants (Delphinium, Aerangis, Tropaeolum and others) from different regions form tube-like spur which contains nectar (that's why insect from one place sometimes can feed on plant from other which has such structure like the flower which is the traditional source of food for the animal).
- Both some dicots (Anemone) and monocots (Trillium) in inhospitable environments are able to form underground organs such as corms, bulbs and rhizomes for reserving of nutrition and water till the conditions become better.
- Insectivorous plants: Nitrogen-deficient plants have in at least 7 distinct times become insectivorous, like: flypaper trapssundew, spring traps-Venus fly trap, and pitcher traps in order to capture and digest insects to obtain scarce nitrogen.
- Similar-looking rosette succulents have arisen separately among plants in the families Asphodelaceae (formerly Liliaceae) and Crassulaceae.
- The Orchids, the Birthwort family and Stylidiaceae have evolved independently the specific organ known as gynostemium, more popular as column.
- The Euphorbia of deserts in Africa and southern Asia, and the Cactaceae of the New World deserts have similar modifications (see picture below for one of many possible examples).
- Sunflower: some types of Sunflower and Pericallis are due to convergent evolution.
- C4 photosynthesis is estimated to have evolved over 60 times within plants. C4 plants use a different metabolic pathway to capture carbon dioxide but also have differences in leaf anatomy and cell biology compared to most other plants.
Read more about this topic: List Of Examples Of Convergent Evolution
Other articles related to "plants, in plants, plant":
... Ebenaceae is a family of flowering plants, belonging to order Ericales, which includes ebony and persimmon among approximately 768 species of trees and shrubs ... The species are mostly evergreen plants native to the tropics and subtropics, with a few deciduous species native to temperate regions ... Ebenaceae are woody plants that frequently grow in poor or acids soils establishing a mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship with particular fungus species providing mainly mineral ...
... In addition the proton pumps in the mitochondria, plants have a proton ATPase that creates the electrochemical gradients in the plasma membrane of plants, fungi, protists, and many ... As such, it is essential for the uptake of most metabolites, and also for plant responses to the environment (e.g ...
... Burkholderia gladioli has been identified as a plant pathogen in onions, gladiolus, iris, and together with Burkholderia glumae affect the rice ... Some other common symptoms of infected plants can be seen in the leaves ... Sometimes, the whole plant decays ...
Famous quotes containing the word plants:
“What I did not yet know so intensely was the hatred of the white American for the black, a hatred so deep that I wonder if every white man in this country, when he plants a tree, doesnt see Negroes hanging from its branches.”
—Jean Genet (19101986)
“And time brings down what is both strong and tall.
But plants new set to be eradicate,
And buds new blown, to have so short a date,
Is by his hand alone that guides nature and fate.”
—Anne Bradstreet (c. 16121672)