⟨gb⟩ is used in some African languages for a voiced labial-velar plosive, .
⟨ge⟩ is used in French orthography for before ⟨a o u⟩ as in geôle .
⟨gg⟩ is used in English orthography for /ɡ/ before ⟨i⟩ and ⟨e⟩. It is also used in Pinyin for in languages such as Yi. In the orthography of Central Alaskan Yup'ik, it represents . In Greenlandic orthography, it represents . In the ISO romanization of Korean, it is used for the fortis sound, otherwise spelled ⟨kk⟩ (e.g. ggakdugi). In Hadza it is ejective /kxʼ/, and in Piedmontese, it is .
⟨gh⟩ (see article)
⟨gi⟩ is used in the Vietnamese alphabet for in northern dialects and in the southern ones. In the Italian alphabet, it represents before the non-front vowel letters ⟨a o u⟩.
⟨gj⟩ is used in the Albanian alphabet for the voiced palatal plosive, though for Gheg speakers it represents . In the Arbëresh dialect, it represents the voiced velar plosive . In the Norwegian and Swedish alphabets, ⟨gj⟩ represents in words like gjorde ('did'). In Faroese, it represents . It is also used in the Romanization of Macedonian as a Latin equivalent of Cyrillic ⟨Ѓ⟩.
⟨gk⟩ is used in Sandawe and the romanization of Thai for ; in Limburgish it represents .
⟨gl⟩ is used in the Italian alphabet for before ⟨i⟩. Elsewhere is represented by the trigraph ⟨gli⟩.
⟨gm⟩ is used in English orthography for /m/ in a few words of Greek origin, such as phlegm and paradigm. Between vowels, it simply represents /ɡm/, as in paradigmatic.
⟨gn⟩ is used in the Latin orthography, where it represented in the classical period. Latin velar-coronal sequences like this (and also ⟨cl cr ct gd gl gr x⟩) underwent a palatal mutation to varying degrees in most Italo-Western Romance languages. For most languages that preserve the ⟨gn⟩ spelling (such as Italian and French), it represents a palatal nasal . This was not the case in Dalmatian and the Eastern Romance languages where a different mutation changed the velar component to a labial consonant as well as the spelling to ⟨mn⟩.
- In English orthography, ⟨gn⟩ represents /n/ initially and finally (i.e. gnome, gnu, benign, sign). When it appears between two syllables, it represents /ɡn/ (e.g. signal). In the Norwegian and Swedish alphabets, ⟨gn⟩ represents in monosyllabic words like, agn and between two syllables, tegne. Initially, it represents, e.g. Swedish gnista .
⟨gñ⟩ was used in several Spanish-derived orthographies of the Pacific for . It is one of several variants of the digraph ⟨ñg⟩, and is preserved in the name of the town of Sagñay, Philippines.
⟨go⟩ is used in the Piedmontese alphabet for .
⟨gq⟩ is used in alphabets for languages such as Xhosa and Zulu for the click . In the orthography of the Taa language, it represents .
⟨gr⟩ is used in the orthography for Xhosa for .
⟨gu⟩ is used in the Spanish and Portuguese orthographies for before front vowels ⟨i e⟩ where a "soft g" pronunciation (Spanish, Portuguese ) would otherwise occur. In the Ossete Latin alphabet, it is used for .
⟨gü⟩ is used in the Spanish orthography for before front vowels ⟨i e⟩ where the digraph ⟨gu⟩ would otherwise represent .
⟨gv⟩ is used for in Standard Zhuang and in Bouyei.
⟨gw⟩ is used in various languages for, and in the orthography for Dene Suline it represents .
⟨ǥw⟩, capital ⟨Ǥw⟩ (or ⟨G̱w⟩), is used in Alaskan Tlingit for ; in Canada, this sound is represented by ⟨ghw⟩.
⟨gx⟩ is used in alphabets for languages such as Xhosa and Zulu for the click . In Esperanto orthography, it is an unofficial variant of ⟨ĝ⟩.
⟨gy⟩ is used in the Hungarian alphabet for a voiced palatal plosive . In Hungarian, the letter's name is gyé. It is considered a single letter, and acronyms keep the digraph intact. The letter appears frequently in Hungarian words, such as the word for "Hungarian" itself: magyar. In the old orthography of Bouyei, it was used for .
Read more about this topic: List Of Digraphs In Latin Alphabets