List of Digraphs in Latin Alphabets - E

E

e′⟩ is used in the orthography of the Taa language, where it represents the glottalized or creaky vowel .

ea⟩ is used in many languages. In English orthography, ⟨ea⟩ usually represents the monophthong /i/ as in meat; due to a sound change that happened in Middle English, it also often represents the vowel /ɛ/ as in sweat. Rare pronunciations occur, like /eɪ/ in just break, great, steak, and yea, and /æ/ in the archaic ealdorman. When followed by r, it can represent the standard outcomes of the previously mentioned three vowels in this environment: /ɪər/ as in beard, /ɜr/ as in heard, and /ɛər/ as in bear, respectively; as another exception, /ɑr/ occurs in the words hearken, heart and hearth. It often represents two independent vowels, like /eɪ.ɑː/ (seance), /i.æ/ (reality), /i.eɪ/ (create), and /i.ɨ/ (lineage). Unstressed, it may represent /jə/ (ocean) or /ɨ/ (Eleanor). In the Romanian alphabet, it represents the diphthong as in beată ('drunk female'). In Irish orthography, ⟨ea⟩ represents between a slender and a broad consonant. ⟨Ea⟩ is also the transliteration of the ⟨ᛠ⟩ rune of the Anglo-Frisian Futhorc.

⟩ is used in Irish orthography for /aː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.

éa⟩ is used in Irish orthography for /eː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.

ee⟩ represents a long mid vowel in a number of languages. In English orthography, ⟨ee⟩ represents /iː/ as in teen. In both the Dutch and German alphabets, ⟨ee⟩ represents (though it's pronounced in majority of northern Dutch dialects). In Bouyei, ⟨ee⟩ is used for plain, as ⟨e⟩ stands for

eh⟩ is used in the orthography of the Taa language for the murmured vowel . In the Wade-Giles transliteration of Mandarin Chinese, it is used for after a consonant, as in yeh .

ei⟩ usually represents a diphthong. In English orthography, ⟨ei⟩ can represent many sounds, including /eɪ/, as in vein, /i/ as in seize, /aɪ/ as in heist, /ɛ/ as in heifer, /æ/ as in enceinte, and /ɨ/ as in forfeit. See also I before e except after c. In the southern and western Faroese dialects, it represents the diphthong, while in the northern and eastern dialects, it represents the diphthong .

In the Welsh alphabet, ⟨ei⟩ represents . In the Irish and Scottish Gaelic orthographies, it represents before a slender consonant. In the Dutch alphabet, ⟨ei⟩ represents . In the German alphabet, it represents /aɪ/, as in Einstein. This digraph was taken over from Middle High German writing systems, where it represented /eɪ/. In Modern German, ⟨ei⟩ is predominant in representing /aɪ/, while the equivalent digraph ⟨ai⟩ appears in only a few words. In French orthography, ⟨ei⟩ represents /ɛ/, as in seiche.

⟩ is used in French orthography for /ɛː/, as in reître .

éi⟩ is used in Irish orthography for /eː/ between slender consonants.

em⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for at the end of a word and before a consonant. In French orthography, it can represent /ɑ̃/.

ém⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for at the end of a word.

êm⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for at the end of a word and before a consonant.

en⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for at the end of a word and before a consonant within a word. In French orthography, it represents /ɑ̃/.

én⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for before a consonant.

ên⟩ is used in Portuguese orthography for before a consonant.

eo⟩ is used in Irish orthography for /oː/ or occasionally /ɔ/ between a slender and a broad consonant. In the Jyutping romanization of Cantonese, it represents, an allophone of /œː/. In the Revised Romanization of Korean, ⟨eo⟩ represents the open-mid back unrounded vowel /ʌ/, and in Piedmontese it is . In English orthography ⟨eo⟩ is a rare digraph without a single pronunciation, representing /ɛ/ in feoff, jeopardy, leopard and the given name Geoffrey, /iː/ in people, /oʊ/ in yeoman and /juː/ in the archaic feodary, while in the originally Gaelic name MacLeod it represents /aʊ/. However, usually it represents two vowels, like /iː.ə/ in leotard and galleon, /iː.oʊ/ in stereo and, /iː.ɒ/ in geodesy, and, uniquely, /uː.iː/ in geoduck.

eq⟩ is used in the orthography of the Taa language for the pharyngealized vowel .

eu⟩ is found in many languages, most commonly for the diphthong /eu/. Additionally, in English orthography, ⟨eu⟩ represents /juː/ as in neuter (though in yod dropping accents /uː/ may occur). In the German alphabet, it represents /ɔʏ/ as in Deutsch; and in the French, Dutch, Breton, Piedmontese, and Cornish orthographies, it represents as in feu. In Yale Cantonese romanization it represents /œː/. In the orthographies of Sundanese and Acehnese, both Austronesian languages, it represents /ɤ/ as in beureum ('red'). In the Revised Romanization of Korean, it represents /ɯ/.

⟩ is used in French orthography for /ø/, as in jeûne .

ew⟩ is used in English orthography for /juː/ as in few and flew. An exception is the pronunciation /oʊ/ in sew, leading to the heteronym sewer,(/ˈsuːər/, 'drain') vs sewer (/ˈsoʊər/, 'one who sews').

ey⟩ is used in English orthography for a variety of sounds, including /eɪ/ in they, /iː/ in key, and /aɪ/ in geyser. In the Faroese alphabet, it represents the diphthong .

Read more about this topic:  List Of Digraphs In Latin Alphabets

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