List of Digraphs in Latin Alphabets - C

C

cc⟩ is used in Andean Spanish for loanwords from Quechua or Aymara with, as in Ccozcco (modern Qusqu) ('Cuzco'). In many European languages, ⟨cc⟩ before front vowels represents a sequence such as, e.g. English success, French occire, Spanish accidente (dialectally or ). In Hadza it is the glottalized click /ᵑǀˀ/, and in Piedmontese, it is .

cg⟩ is used for the click /ǀχ/ in Naro. It was also used for /dʒ/ in Old English (ecg in Old English sounded like 'edge' in Modern English), and in the Tindall orthography of Khoehkoe for the voiceless dental click /ǀ/.

ch⟩ (see article)

čh⟩ is used in Romani orthography and the Chechen Latin alphabet for /tʃʰ/. In the Ossete Latin alphabet, it was used for /tʃʼ/.

ci⟩ is used in the Italian alphabet for /tʃ/ before the non-front vowel letters ⟨a, o, u⟩. In English orthography, it usually represents /ʃ/ whenever it precedes any vowel other than ⟨i⟩.

ck⟩ is used in many Germanic languages in lieu of ⟨kk⟩ or ⟨cc⟩ to indicate either a geminated /kː/, or a /k/ with a preceding (historically) short vowel. The latter is the case with English tack, deck, pick, lock, and buck (compare backer with baker). In German orthography, ⟨ck⟩ indicates that the preceding vowel is short. Prior to the German spelling reform of 1996, it was replaced by ⟨k-k⟩ for syllabification. The new spelling rules allow only syllabification of the ⟨ck⟩ as a whole:

  • Old spelling: Säcke: Säk-ke ('sacks')
  • New spelling: Säcke: Sä-cke
Among the modern Germanic languages, ⟨ck⟩ is used mainly in Alsatian, English, German, Luxembourgish, Scots, Swedish, and other West Germanic languages in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Similarly, ⟨kk⟩ is used for the same purpose in Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, and other West Germanic languages in the Netherlands and Belgium. Compare the word nickel, which is the same in many of these languages except for the customary ⟨ck⟩ or ⟨kk⟩ spelling. The word is nickel in English and Swedish, Nickel in German, and nikkel in Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, Icelandic and Norwegian.
It was also used in the Tindall orthography of Khoehkoe for the voiceless dental click /ǀ/ (equivalent to ⟨cg⟩).

cn⟩ is used in English orthography for /n/ in a few words of Greek origin, such as cnidarian. When not initial, it represents /kn/, as in acne.

⟩ is used in the Seri alphabet for a labialized velar plosive, /kʷ/. It is placed between ⟨C⟩ and ⟨E⟩ in alphabetical order.

cs⟩ is used in the Hungarian alphabet for a voiceless postalveolar affricate, /tʃ/. It is considered a distinct letter, named csé, and is placed between ⟨C⟩ and ⟨D⟩ in alphabetical order. Examples of words with cs include csak ('only'), csésze ('cup'), cső ('pipe').

ct⟩ is used in English orthography for /t/ in a few words of Greek origin, such as ctenoid. When not initial, it represents /kt/, as in act.

cu⟩ is used in the orthographies for languages such as Nahuatl (that is, based on Spanish or Portuguese orthography) for /kʷ/. In Nahuatl, ⟨cu⟩ is used before a vowel, whereas ⟨uc⟩ is used after a vowel.

cx⟩ is used unofficially in lieu of Esperanto orthography's ⟨ĉ⟩.

cz⟩ is used in Polish orthography for /t͡ʂ/ as in cześć ('hello'). In Kashubian, ⟨cz⟩ represents /tʃ/. This digraph was once common across Europe (which explains the English spelling of Czech), but has largely been replaced. In French and Catalan, historical ⟨cz⟩ contracted to the ligature ⟨ç⟩, and represents the sound /s/. In Hungarian, it was formerly used for the sound /ts/, which is now written ⟨c⟩.

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