Lipid A

Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for toxicity of Gram-negative bacteria. It is the innermost of the three regions of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) molecule, and its hydrophobic nature allows it to anchor the LPS to the outer membrane. While its toxic effects can be damaging, the sensing of lipid A by the human immune system may also be critical for the onset of immune responses to Gram-negative infection, and for the subsequent successful fight against the infection.

Read more about Lipid A:  Functions, Chemical Composition, Inhibition and Activation of Immune Response, Mechanism of Activating Cells

Other articles related to "lipid a":

Lipopolysaccharide - Composition - Lipid A
... Lipid A is, in normal circumstances, a phosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide decorated with multiple fatty acids ... The lipid A domain is responsible for much of the toxicity of Gram-negative bacteria ... When bacterial cells are lysed by the immune system, fragments of membrane containing lipid A are released into the circulation, causing fever, diarrhea ...
Lipid A - Mechanism of Activating Cells
... Lipid A (and LPS) has been demonstrated to activate cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MD-2 and CD14 on the cell surface (Poltorak, Beutler et al ... Consequently, lipid A analogs like eritoran can act as TLR4 antagonists ...