Levels-of-processing Effect - Modifiers - Implicit Memory and Levels-of-processing

Implicit Memory and Levels-of-processing

Implicit memory tests, in contrast with explicit memory tests, measure the recall value of a particular stimulus based on later performance on stimulus-related tasks. During these tasks, the subject does not explicitly recall the stimulus, but the previous stimulus still effects performance. For example, in a word-completion implicit memory task, if a subject reads a list containing the word "dog," the subject provides this word more readily when asked for three-letter words beginning in "d." The levels-of-processing effect is only found for explicit memory tests. One study found that word completion tasks were unaffected by levels of semantic encodings achieved using three words with various levels of meaning in common. Another found that typical level-of-processing effects are reversed in word completion tasks; subjects recalled pictures pairs more completely if they were shown a word representing a picture rather than asked to rate a picture for pleasantness (semantic encoding). Typical level-of-processing theory would predict that picture encodings would create deeper processing than lexical encoding.

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