Leninism

In Marxist philosophy, Leninism is the body of political theory for the democratic organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party, and the achievement of a direct-democracy dictatorship of the proletariat, as political prelude to the establishment of socialism. Developed by, and named for, the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, 1870–1924), Leninism comprises political and socialist economic theories, developed from Marxism, and Lenin’s interpretations of Marxist theory, for practical application to the socio-political conditions of the agrarian Russian Empire (1721–1917) of the early 20th century. In February 1917, for five years, Leninism was the Russian application of Marxist economics and political philosophy, effected and realised by the Bolshevik party, the vanguard party who led the fight for the political independence of the working class.

Functionally, the Leninist vanguard party provided to the working class the political consciousness (education and organisation), and the revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in Imperial Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917, Leninism was the dominant version of Marxism in Russia, and then the official state ideology of Soviet democracy (by workers’ council) in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR), before its unitary amalgamation into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), in 1922. Moreover, in post–Lenin Russia, in the 1925–29 period, Joseph Stalin integrated Leninism to Marxist economics, and developed Marxism–Leninism, which then became the Communist state ideology of the USSR.

As a political-science term, Leninism entered common usage in 1922, only after infirmity ended Lenin’s participation in governing the Russian Communist Party. Two years later, in July 1924, at the fifth congress of the Communist International (Comintern), Grigory Zinoviev popularized the use of the term Leninism to denote vanguard-party revolution. Leninism was composed as and for revolutionary praxis, and originally was neither rigorously proper philosophy nor discrete political theory. After the Russian Revolution (1917), in History and Class Consciousness (1923), György Lukács ideologically developed and organised Lenin’s pragmatic revolutionary practices into the formal philosophy of vanguard-party revolution (Leninism). As a work of political science and of political philosophy, History and Class Consciousness illustrated Lenin’s 1915 dictum about the commitment to the cause of the revolutionary man, and said of György Lukács:

One cannot be a revolutionary Social–Democrat without participating, according to one’s powers, in developing this theory, and adapting it to changed conditions.

Lenin and the Russian Revolution (1971) p. 35.

Part of the series on
Communism
Concepts Marxist philosophy
Marxian economics
Historical materialism
Surplus value
Mode of production
Class struggle
Classless society
Proletarian internationalism
Workers' self-management
World revolution
Aspects Communist state
Communist party
Communist revolution
Communist symbolism
Communism and religion
History of communism
Variants Marxism
Leninism
Marxism-Leninism
Anti-revisionism: Stalinism - Maoism - Hoxhaism
Trotskyism
Luxemburgism
Titoism
Juche
Castroism
Guevarism
Left communism
Council communism
Anarchist communism
Religious communism
Christian communism
Eurocommunism
World communism
Stateless communism
National communism
Primitive communism
Scientific communism
List of communist parties
Internationals Communist League
First International
Second International
Third International
Fourth International
Leading individuals Gracchus Babeuf
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Peter Kropotkin
Rosa Luxemburg
Karl Liebknecht
Antonio Gramsci
Vladimir Lenin
Leon Trotsky
Joseph Stalin
Kim Il-Sung
Mao Zedong
Ho Chi Minh
Palmiro Togliatti
Josip Broz Tito
Che Guevara
Related topics Anti-capitalism
Anti-communism
Cold War
Communitarianism
Criticisms of communism
Criticisms of communist party rule
Dictatorship of the proletariat
Left-wing politics
New Class · New Left
Socialism
Socialist economics
"Workers of the world, unite!"
Part of a series on
Marxism–Leninism
Core tenets
  • Communism
  • Vanguard party
  • Democratic centralism
  • Marxist–Leninist atheism
  • Central planning
  • Proletarian internationalism
  • Single-party state
  • Socialist patriotism
Topics
  • Marxism
  • Leninism
  • Stalinism
  • Trotskyism
  • Maoism
  • Hoxhaism
  • De-Stalinization
  • Anti-Revisionism
  • Khrushchevism
People
  • Karl Marx
  • Vladimir Lenin
  • Joseph Stalin
  • Ernst Thälmann
  • Earl Browder
  • Gonchigiin Bumtsend
  • Josip Broz Tito
  • Fidel Castro
  • Che Guevara
  • Mao Zedong
  • Ho Chi Minh
  • Enver Hoxha
  • Mathieu Kérékou
  • Agostinho Neto
  • Samora Machel
  • Thomas Sankara
  • Alfonso Cano
Literature
  • Wage Labor and Capital
  • Materialism and Empirio-criticism
  • Imperialism
  • What Is to Be Done?
  • The State and Revolution
  • Dialectical and Historical Materialism
  • On Contradiction
  • Guerrilla Warfare
  • Fundamentals of Marxism–Leninism
History
  • Great October Socialist Revolution
  • Soviet Union
  • Comintern
  • Hungarian Soviet Republic
  • Spanish Civil War
  • World War II
  • Warsaw Pact
  • Greek Civil War
  • Chinese Revolution (1949)
  • Korean War
  • Cuban Revolution
  • De-Stalinization
  • Non-Aligned Movement
  • Sino-Soviet Split
  • Vietnam War
  • Portuguese Colonial War
  • Nicaraguan Revolution
  • Nepalese Civil War
  • Naxalite-Maoist insurgency
Related topics
  • Bolshevism
  • Leninism
  • Maoism
  • Marxism
  • Stalinism
  • Anti-Revisionism
  • Titoism
  • Trotskyism
  • Communism portal
  • Politics portal

Read more about Leninism:  Historical Background, Leninism After 1924, Philosophic Successors

Other articles related to "leninism":

Leninism - Philosophic Successors
... In political practice, Leninism (vanguard-party revolution), despite its origin as Communist revolutionary praxis, was adopted throughout the political spectrum ... Maoism (The Thought of Mao Zedong), the Chinese practical application of Marxism-Leninism, specific to Chinese socio-economic conditions ...
Chinese Library Classification - The CLC System - A. Marxism, Leninism, Maoism & Deng Xiaoping Theory
... A1 The Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels A2 The Works of Vladimir Lenin A3 The Works of Joseph Stalin A4 The Works of Mao Zedong A49 The works of Deng Xiaoping A5 The Symposium/Collection of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin, Mao and Deng Xiaoping A7 The biobibliography and biography of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin, Mao and Deng Xiaoping A8 Study and Research of Marxism, Leninism, Maoism Deng Xiaoping Theory. ...
Decadence - Use in Marxism - Leninism
... One who directly opposed the idea of decadence as expressed by Lenin was José Ortega y Gasset in The Revolt of the Masses (1930) ... He argued that the "mass man" had the notion of material progress and scientific advance deeply inculcated to the extent that it was an expectation ...
Anti-Leninism
... Anti-Leninism is the opposition to thought known as Leninism or Bolshevism. ...
Marxistic - Variants - Marxism-Leninism After Stalin
... For better or worse, Marxism-Leninism as a body of thought and practice was closely identified with the figure of Joseph Stalin after the death of Lenin ... and practical ruptures with his predecessor which lead to the eventual split of Marxism-Leninism into two main branches, post-Stalin "Moscow-aligned" communism and ...