Large Igneous Provinces

Large Igneous Provinces

A large igneous province (LIP) is an extremely large accumulation of igneous rocks—intrusive, extrusive, or both—in the earth's crust. In 1992 researchers first used the term large igneous province to describe very large accumulations—areas greater than 100,000 square kilometers (slightly larger than the area of Portugal)—of mafic igneous rocks that were erupted or emplaced at depth within an extremely short geological time interval: a few million years or less. Mafic, basalt sea floors and other geological products of 'normal' plate tectonics were not included in the definition.

The definition of LIP has been expanded and refined, and is still a work in progress. LIP is now frequently also used to describe voluminous areas of, not just mafic, but all types of igneous rocks. Sub-categorization of LIPs into large volcanic provinces (LVP) and large plutonic provinces (LPP), and including rocks produced by normal plate tectonic processes, has been proposed.

The source of many or all LIPs is variously attributed to mantle plumes or to processes associated with plate tectonics.

Some LIPs are now intact, such the basaltic Deccan Traps in India, while others have been dismembered by plate tectonic motion, like the basaltic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)—parts of which are found in Brazil, eastern North America, and north-western Africa.

Read more about Large Igneous Provinces:  Motivations For Study of LIPs, Large Igneous Province Formation, Large Igneous Province Classification, Examples of Large Igneous Provinces

Other articles related to "igneous, large igneous, large, large igneous provinces, province":

Chromitite
... Chromitite is an igneous cumulate rock composed mostly of the mineral chromite ... It is found in layered intrusions such as the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa, the Stillwater igneous complex in Montana and the recent Ring of Fire discovery in Ontario ...
Carrizo Mountains - Geology
... The Carrizo Mountains primarily consist of igneous rocks that intruded Permian through Cretaceous marine strata ... The most common igneous rock type is porphyritic hornblende diorite ... Ages of the igneous rocks range from 70 to 74 million years ...
Lopolith
... A lopolith is a large igneous intrusion which is lenticular in shape with a depressed central region ... Lopoliths typically consist of large layered intrusions that range in age from Archean to Eocene ... Examples include the Duluth gabbro, the Sudbury Igneous Complex of Ontario, the Bushveld igneous complex of South Africa, the Great Dyke in Zimbabwe, the ...
Examples of Large Igneous Provinces - Related Structures - Sills
... million years) from related dikes comprise an LIP if their area is sufficiently large ... sill complex (northwestern Alberta, Canada) Bushveld Igneous Complex (South Africa) with at area of over 66,000 km2 (25,000 sq mi), and a thickness reaching 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) thick ...
Supervolcano - Large Igneous Provinces
... Large igneous provinces (LIP) such as Iceland, the Siberian Traps, Deccan Traps, and the Ontong Java Plateau are extensive regions of basalts on a continental scale resulting from flood basalt eruptions ... They release large amounts of gases. 2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi), and the province was at least 50% larger before the Manihiki and Hikurangi Plateaus broke away ...

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