Need For Secrecy
In designing security systems, it is wise to assume that the details of the cryptographic algorithm are already available to the attacker. This principle is known as Kerckhoffs' principle — "only secrecy of the key provides security", or, reformulated as Shannon's maxim, "the enemy knows the system". The history of cryptography provides evidence that it can be difficult to keep the details of a widely used algorithm secret (see security through obscurity). A key is often easier to protect (it's typically a small piece of information) than an encryption algorithm, and easier to change if compromised. Thus, the security of an encryption system in most cases relies on some key being kept secret.
Keeping keys secret is one of the most difficult problems in practical cryptography; see key management. An attacker who obtains the key (by, for example, theft, extortion, dumpster diving or social engineering) can recover the original message from the encrypted data.
Encryption algorithms which use the same key for both encryption and decryption are known as symmetric key algorithms. A newer class of "public key" cryptographic algorithms was invented in the 1970s which uses a pair of keys, one to encrypt and one to decrypt. These asymmetric key algorithms allow one key to be made public while retaining the private key in only one location. They are designed so that finding out the private key is extremely difficult, even if the corresponding public key is known. A user of public key technology can publish their public key, while keeping their private key secret, allowing anyone to send them an encrypted message.
Read more about this topic: Key (cryptography)
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Famous quotes containing the word secrecy:
“Cruelty has a Human Heart,
And jealousy a Human Face;
Terror the Human Form Divine,
And secrecy the Human Dress.”
—William Blake (17571827)