Pike is best known for his distinction between the emic and the etic. "Emic" (as in "phonemics") refers to the subjective understanding and account of meaning in the sounds of languages, while "etic" (as in phonetics") refers to the objective study of those sounds. Pike argued that only native speakers are competent judges of emic descriptions, and are thus crucial in providing data for linguistic research, while investigators from outside the linguistic group apply scientific methods in the analysis of language, producing etic descriptions which are verifiable and reproducible. Pike himself carried out studies of indigenous languages in Australia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Ghana, Java, Mexico, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Peru.
Pike developed his theory of tagmemics to help with the analysis of languages from Central and South America, by identifying (using both semantic and syntactic elements) strings of linguistic elements capable of playing a number of different roles.
Pike's approach to the study of language put him outside the circle of the "generative" movement begun by Noam Chomsky, a dominant linguist, since Pike believed that the structure of language should be studied in context, not just single sentences, as seen in the title of his magnum opus "Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human behavior" (1967).
He became well known for his "monolingual demonstrations". He would stand before an audience, with a large number of chalkboards. A speaker of a language unknown to him would be brought in to work with Pike. Using gestures and objects, not asking questions in a language that the person might know, Pike would begin to analyze the language before the audience.
Pike also developed the constructed language Kalaba-X for use in teaching the theory and practice of translation.
When asked whether he was a missionary or a linguist, he replied "I am a mule." He explained that a mule is part horse, part donkey, combining traits of each. He pointed out that sometimes he did more of the work of a horse, other times he did more of the work of a donkey, but he was always both (Headland 2001:508).
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Other articles related to "work, works":
... Weorc or Work (Anglo-Saxon leader), who gave his name to Workington or 'Weorc-inga-tun', meaning the 'tun' (settlement) of the 'Weorcingas' (the people of Weorc or Work) ...
... His work led to the discovery of the first evidence for the use by Palaeolithic man in the Caves of the Mendip Hills ... Balch continued the work from 1904 to 1914, where he led excavations of the entrance passage (1904–15), Witch's Kitchen (Chamber 1) and Hell's Ladder (1926–1927 ... The 1911 work found a 4 to 7 feet (1.2–2.1 m) of stratification, mostly dating from the Iron age and sealed into place by Romano-British artefacts ...
... His most famous work, the De re metallica libri xii long remained a standard work, and marks its author as one of the most accomplished chemists of ... The work is a complete and systematic treatise on mining and extractive metallurgy, illustrated with many fine and interesting woodcuts which illustrate every conceivable process to extract ... Until that time, Pliny's work Historia Naturalis was the main source of information on metals and mining techniques, and Agricola made numerous references to the Roman ...
... in 1527, and was chosen as town physician at Joachimsthal, a centre of mining and smelting works, his object being partly "to fill in the gaps in the art of healing", and partly to test what had been written ... order the knowledge won by practical work, brought Agricola into notice it contained an approving letter from Erasmus at the beginning of the book ... theological and historical subjects, his chief historical work being the Dominatores Saxonici a prima origine ad hanc aetatem, published at Freiberg ...
Famous quotes containing the word work:
“Basil: What I meant was, what work do you do?
Zorba: Listen to him. I got hands, feet, head, they do the jobs. Who the hell am I to choose?”
—Michael Cacoyannis (b. 1922)
“Men should not labor foolishly like brutes, but the brain and the body should always, or as much as possible, work and rest together, and then the work will be of such a kind that when the body is hungry the brain will be hungry also, and the same food will suffice for both; otherwise the food which repairs the waste energy of the overwrought body will oppress the sedentary brain, and the degenerate scholar will come to esteem all food vulgar, and all getting a living drudgery.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“It is easy to see that what is best written or done by genius in the world, was no mans work but came by wide social labor, when a thousand wrought like one, sharing the same impulse.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)