Kara Koyunlu

The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (Persian/Azeri: قرا قویونلو), were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia (1406), Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.

The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one point established their capital in Herat in eastern Persia, and were vassals of the Jalayirid dynasty in Baghdad and Tabriz from about 1375, when the leader of their leading tribe, ruled over Mosul. However, they rebelled against the Jalayirids, and secured their independence from the dynasty with the conquest of Tabriz by Qara Yusuf. In 1400, the armies of Tamerlane defeated the Kara Koyunlu, and Qara Yusuf fled to Egypt seeking refuge with the Mamluks. He gathered an army and by 1406 had taken back Tabriz. In 1410, the Kara Koyunlu captured Baghdad. The installation of a subsidiary Black Sheep Turkomans line there hastened the downfall of the Jalayirids whom they had once served. Despite internal fighting amongst Kara Yusuf's descendants after his death in 1420, and the increasing threat of the Timurids, the Black Sheep Turkomans maintained a strong grip over the areas they controlled.

Read more about Kara KoyunluJahān Shāh

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... lasted about fifty years, until it was disrupted by Tamerlane's conquests and the revolts of the Kara Koyunlu (Qara Qoyunlu) also known as 'Black Sheep Turks' ... domain two new rival Turkic states emerged – the Kara Koyunlu based around Lake Van and the Ak Koyunlu (or White Sheep Turks) centered around Diyarbakır ... Initially, it was the Kara Koyunlu who were ascendant when their chief Kara Yusuf overcame Sultan Ahmad, the last of Jalayirids, and conquered South of Azerbaijan in 1410, establishing his capital ...
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... Armenia fell under the control of the Kara Koyunlu in 1410 ... According to Tovma, although the Kara Koyunlu levied heavy taxes against the Armenians, the early years of their rule were relatively peaceful and some reconstruction of towns took place ...
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... Amir Timur invades Kara Koyunlu (1400 - 1405 C.E.) Bey Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad 1405 - 1420 C.E ... Yellow Shaded row signifies Progenitor of Kara Koyunlu dynasty ...
Jahan Shah
... جهان شاه‎) was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu Turkmen tribal federation in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c.1438-1467 ... During his reign he managed to expand the Kara Koyunlu’s territory to its largest extent, including Western Anatolia, most of present day Iraq, central Iran ... He was one of the greatest rulers of the Kara Koyunlu ...
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... Hasan 'Ali (died 1468) ibn Jahan Shah was the last ruler of the Kara Koyunlu Turkmen tribal federation, ruling for just one year from 1467–68, before ... Jahan Shah who was defeated following his attempt to subjugate the rival Ak Koyunlu tribe in 1467 ... The Ak Koyunlu leader Uzun Hasan also killed Hasan Ali in 1468 ...