Japanese Verb Conjugation - te Form

te Form

The te form of a Japanese verb (sometimes called the "participle") is used when the verb has some kind of connection to the following words. This originally came from the combination of the "i" form described above plus the particle "te". For all verbs, it is formed by changing the -a of the perfective aspect form to -e. Adjectives behave slightly differently.

Type Becomes Examples Te form
Irregular verbs
する suru (do) して shite 愛する aisuru (to love) 愛して aishite
来る kuru (come) 来て kite
da (copula) de
行く iku (go) 行って itte
問う tou (ask) 問うて tōte 請う kou (request) 請うて kōte
-ます -masu stem -まして -mashite 開けます akemasu (open) 開けまして akemashite
Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs
-う -u -って -tte 使う tsukau (use) 使って tsukatte
-く -ku -いて -ite 焼く yaku (grill) 焼いて yaite
-ぐ -gu -いで -ide 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳いで oyoide
-す -su -して -shite 示す shimesu (show) 示して shimeshite
-つ -tsu -って -tte 待つ matsu (wait) 待って matte
-ぬ -nu -んで -nde 死ぬ shinu (die) 死んで shinde
-ぶ -bu -んで -nde 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼んで yonde
-む -mu -んで -nde 読む yomu (read) 読んで yonde
-る -ru -って -tte 走る hashiru (run) 走って hashitte
aru special class (v5aru)
-る -ru -って -tte いらっしゃる irassharu (polite) いらっしゃって irasshatte
いらして irashite
Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs
-る -ru -て -te 見る miru (see)

食べる taberu (eat)

見て mite

食べて tabete

Adjectives
-い -i -くて -kute 安い yasui (cheap) 安くて yasukute
-な -na -で -de 簡単 kantan (simple) 簡単で kantan de

Usage

  • As a simple command:
    • 食べて Tabete: "Eat."
    • 読んで Yonde: "Read."
  • In requests with くれる kureru and 下さい kudasai.
    • 本を読んでください: "Please read the book."
  • With the verbs :
    • いる iru: Forms a progressive or continuous tense. For example: 待っている matte iru: "I am waiting", 知っている shitte iru: "I know", 持っている motte iru: "I have", ここに住んでいる koko ni sunde iru: "I live here". Colloquially, in this form, the "i" often disappears (also in the past tense), so 待っている matte iru becomes 待ってる matteru and 知っている shitte iru becomes 知ってる shitteru.
    • おく oku: It means "to do in advance". お弁当を作っておいた obentō o tsukutte oita: "I've made a boxed lunch (for later)". Colloquially, in this form, the "e" often disappears, so 作っておいた tsukutte oita becomes 作っといた tsukuttoita.
    • ある aru: This forms a kind of passive when used with a transitive verb. ここに文字が書いてある koko ni moji ga kaite aru: "There are some characters written here". It shows that something was left in a certain state. Contrast to 書いている "kaite iru", "I am writing", which applies to the person doing the writing rather than what is written.
    • しまう shimau: This implies something is completed or done, usually unintentionally or accidentally or unexpectedly and sometimes expressing that the action is contrary to right or correct action: 片付けてしまった katazukete shimatta: "I have finished tidying". It can also suggest a regrettable situation: 私の鍵が消えてしまった watashi no kagi ga kiete shimatta: "My keys have disappeared".
      The form -てしまう -te shimau is shortened to the very very commonly used and casual -ちまう -chimau or -ちゃう -chau with the same consonant doubling as the te form. For example, "I forgot my mobile phone!": "keitai wasurechatta!" "携帯忘れちゃった!" The -de shimau form is shortened to -じゃう -jau or -じまう -jimau in colloquial speech.
    • おる oru: Can express a continuing situation.
    • みる miru: It means "to try doing".
    • いく iku: Can express continuous action or a change of state in the future.
    • くる kuru: Can express continuous action or a change of state in the past.
  • To combine clauses or adjectives, as if by the English conjunction "and". For example:
    • 薬局へ行って薬を買う yakkyoku e itte, kusuri o kau: "(I am going to) go to the pharmacy and buy medicine."
    • あの人は親切で頭が良くて分かり易い ano hito wa shinsetsu de, atama ga yokute, wakariyasui: "That person is kind, smart, and easy to understand."
    • 安くていいね yasukute ii ne: "It's good that it's cheap." (lit. "Being cheap, it is good.")
  • With particles in formations such as
    • -てはいけない -te wa ikenai: "You must not ...". For example, 食べてはいけない tabete wa ikenai: "You must not eat this". (Other words of prohibition, such as だめ dame, can be substituted for ikenai.)
    • -てもいい -te mo ii: "You may do/It's ok if you do". For example, 食べてもいい tabete mo ii: "You may eat it".
    • -てもかまわない -te mo kamawanai: "You may do/I don't mind if you do"
    • -て欲しい -te hoshii: "I want you to do (for me)"
    • -てすみません -te sumimasen: "Sorry for making you go through the trouble of"
    • -てくれてありがとう -te kurete arigatou: "Thank you for". For example, ”見てくれてありがとう” mite kurete arigatou:"Thank you for watching".

Read more about this topic:  Japanese Verb Conjugation

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