Japanese Verb Conjugation - Provisional Conditional eba Form

Provisional Conditional eba Form

The eba provisional conditional form is characterized by the final -u becoming -eba for all verbs (with the semi-exception of -tsu verbs becoming -teba).

Type Conditional Examples Conditional
Irregular verbs
する suru すれば sureba 勘弁する kanben suru 勘弁すれば kanben sureba
来る kuru くれば kureba
da (copula) であれば de areba
Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs
-う -u -えば -eba 使う tsukau (use) 使えば tsukaeba
-く -ku -けば -keba 焼く yaku (grill) 焼けば yakeba
-ぐ -gu -げば -geba 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳げば oyogeba
-す -su -せば -seba 示す shimesu (show) 示せば shimeseba
-つ -tsu -てば -teba 待つ matsu (wait) 待てば mateba
-ぬ -nu -ねば -neba 死ぬ shinu (die) 死ねば shineba
-ぶ -bu -べば -beba 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼べば yobeba
-む -mu -めば -meba 読む yomu (read) 読めば yomeba
-る -ru -れば -reba 走る hashiru (run) 走れば hashireba
Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs
-る -ru -れば -reba 見る miru

食べる taberu

見れば mireba

食べれば tabereba

Adjectives
-い -i -ければ -kereba 寒い samui 寒ければ samukereba
-な -na -であれば -de areba 簡単 kantan 簡単であれば kantan de areba
Negative
ない nai (negative) -なければ -nakereba 行かない ikanai 行かなければ ikanakereba
  • na adjectives and nouns are usually used with the なら nara conditional, instead of with であれば de areba.
  • The なければ nakereba form used for the negative form can be colloquially contracted to なきゃ nakya or なくちゃ nakucha. Thus 行かなければ ikanakereba can become 行かなきゃ ikanakya.

Usage

The -eba provisional conditional form is used in conditionals where the emphasis rests more on the condition than the result. For example:

  • 何すればいいか nani sureba ii ka: "What should I do?" (lit. "It would be good if I did what?")
  • 分かればいい wakareba ii: "As long as you understand" (lit. "If you understand, it is good.")
  • 時間があれば買い物をしよう jikan ga areba, kaimono wo shiyō: "If there's time, let's go shopping."

The nakereba negative conditional form means "if not X" or also "unless X". It is obtained by replacing the final -i of the plain negative form with -kereba. (tabenakereba: "if I don't eat" or "unless I eat")

The conditional is also called the "provisional form" in some grammars, because the implied condition is "provided that X happens" (mireba shiru: "provided that you see, you'll know" = "if you see, you'll know").

Read more about this topic:  Japanese Verb Conjugation

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