The eba provisional conditional form is characterized by the final -u becoming -eba for all verbs (with the semi-exception of -tsu verbs becoming -teba).
|する suru||すれば sureba||勘弁する kanben suru||勘弁すれば kanben sureba|
|来る kuru||くれば kureba|
|だ da (copula)||であれば de areba|
|Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs|
|-う -u||-えば -eba||使う tsukau (use)||使えば tsukaeba|
|-く -ku||-けば -keba||焼く yaku (grill)||焼けば yakeba|
|-ぐ -gu||-げば -geba||泳ぐ oyogu (swim)||泳げば oyogeba|
|-す -su||-せば -seba||示す shimesu (show)||示せば shimeseba|
|-つ -tsu||-てば -teba||待つ matsu (wait)||待てば mateba|
|-ぬ -nu||-ねば -neba||死ぬ shinu (die)||死ねば shineba|
|-ぶ -bu||-べば -beba||呼ぶ yobu (call)||呼べば yobeba|
|-む -mu||-めば -meba||読む yomu (read)||読めば yomeba|
|-る -ru||-れば -reba||走る hashiru (run)||走れば hashireba|
|Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs|
|-る -ru||-れば -reba||見る miru
|-い -i||-ければ -kereba||寒い samui||寒ければ samukereba|
|-な -na||-であれば -de areba||簡単 kantan||簡単であれば kantan de areba|
|ない nai (negative)||-なければ -nakereba||行かない ikanai||行かなければ ikanakereba|
- na adjectives and nouns are usually used with the なら nara conditional, instead of with であれば de areba.
- The なければ nakereba form used for the negative form can be colloquially contracted to なきゃ nakya or なくちゃ nakucha. Thus 行かなければ ikanakereba can become 行かなきゃ ikanakya.
The -eba provisional conditional form is used in conditionals where the emphasis rests more on the condition than the result. For example:
- 何すればいいか nani sureba ii ka: "What should I do?" (lit. "It would be good if I did what?")
- 分かればいい wakareba ii: "As long as you understand" (lit. "If you understand, it is good.")
- 時間があれば買い物をしよう jikan ga areba, kaimono wo shiyō: "If there's time, let's go shopping."
The nakereba negative conditional form means "if not X" or also "unless X". It is obtained by replacing the final -i of the plain negative form with -kereba. (tabenakereba: "if I don't eat" or "unless I eat")
The conditional is also called the "provisional form" in some grammars, because the implied condition is "provided that X happens" (mireba shiru: "provided that you see, you'll know" = "if you see, you'll know").
Read more about this topic: Japanese Verb Conjugation
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