The basic pattern is u becomes anai (informal).
|する suru (do)||しない shinai
|勉強する benkyō suru (study)
愛する aisuru (love)
|勉強しない benkyō shinai
|来る kuru (come)||来ない konai|
|ある aru (be, exist)||ない nai|
|だ da (copula)||ではない de wa nai
じゃない ja nai
|です desu (copula, polite)||ではありません de wa arimasen
じゃありません ja arimasen
|-ます -masu (polite suffix)||-ません -masen||行きます ikimasu (go)||行きません ikimasen|
|Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs|
|-う -u||-わない -wanai||使う tsukau (use)||使わない tsukawanai|
|-く -ku||-かない -kanai||焼く yaku (grill)||焼かない yakanai|
|-ぐ -gu||-がない -ganai||泳ぐ oyogu (swim)||泳がない oyoganai|
|-す -su||-さない -sanai||示す shimesu (show)||示さない shimesanai|
|-つ -tsu||-たない -tanai||待つ matsu (wait)||待たない matanai|
|-ぬ -nu||-なない -nanai||死ぬ shinu (die)||死なない shinanai|
|-ぶ -bu||-ばない -banai||呼ぶ yobu (call)||呼ばない yobanai|
|-む -mu||-まない -manai||読む yomu (read)||読まない yomanai|
|-る -ru||-らない -ranai||走る hashiru (run)||走らない hashiranai|
|Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs|
|-る -ru||-ない -nai||見る miru (see)
食べる taberu (eat)
|-い -i||-くない -ku nai||痛い itai (painful)||痛くない itaku nai|
|-な -na||-ではない -de wa nai
-じゃない -ja nai
|簡単 kantan (simple)||簡単ではない kantan de wa nai
簡単じゃない kantan ja nai
The ない nai ending conjugates in two ways.
- As an i adjective. For example the past tense of 食べない tabenai is 食べなかった tabenakatta and the te form is 食べなくて tabenakute.
- Joining main clauses: (私は)食べなくて、寝た。 tabenakute, neta. "I did not eat, and went to bed."
- There is a special te/naide form made by adding で de which yields ないで naide – this can be replaced with ず zu in formal usage.
- Requesting someone to cease/desist: 食べないで下さい tabenaide kudasai "Please don't eat (this)"
- Joining a subordinate clause: 食べないで、寝た。 tabenaide, neta "Without eating, I went to bed."
Read more about this topic: Japanese Verb Conjugation
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