Japanese Verb Conjugation - Negative

The basic pattern is u becomes anai (informal).

Type Negative Examples Negative
Irregular verbs
する suru (do) しない shinai

(さない sanai)

勉強する benkyō suru (study)

愛する aisuru (love)

勉強しない benkyō shinai

愛さない aisanai

来る kuru (come) 来ない konai
ある aru (be, exist) ない nai
da (copula) ではない de wa nai

じゃない ja nai

です desu (copula, polite) ではありません de wa arimasen

じゃありません ja arimasen

-ます -masu (polite suffix) -ません -masen 行きます ikimasu (go) 行きません ikimasen
Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs
-う -u -わない -wanai 使う tsukau (use) 使わない tsukawanai
-く -ku -かない -kanai 焼く yaku (grill) 焼かない yakanai
-ぐ -gu -がない -ganai 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳がない oyoganai
-す -su -さない -sanai 示す shimesu (show) 示さない shimesanai
-つ -tsu -たない -tanai 待つ matsu (wait) 待たない matanai
-ぬ -nu -なない -nanai 死ぬ shinu (die) 死なない shinanai
-ぶ -bu -ばない -banai 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼ばない yobanai
-む -mu -まない -manai 読む yomu (read) 読まない yomanai
-る -ru -らない -ranai 走る hashiru (run) 走らない hashiranai
Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs
-る -ru -ない -nai 見る miru (see)

食べる taberu (eat)

見ない minai

食べない tabenai

Adjectives
-い -i -くない -ku nai 痛い itai (painful) 痛くない itaku nai
-な -na -ではない -de wa nai

-じゃない -ja nai

簡単 kantan (simple) 簡単ではない kantan de wa nai

簡単じゃない kantan ja nai

The ない nai ending conjugates in two ways.

  1. As an i adjective. For example the past tense of 食べない tabenai is 食べなかった tabenakatta and the te form is 食べなくて tabenakute.
    • Joining main clauses: (私は)食べなくて、寝た。 tabenakute, neta. "I did not eat, and went to bed."
  2. There is a special te/naide form made by adding で de which yields ないで naide – this can be replaced with ず zu in formal usage.
    • Requesting someone to cease/desist: 食べないで下さい tabenaide kudasai "Please don't eat (this)"
    • Joining a subordinate clause: 食べないで、寝た。 tabenaide, neta "Without eating, I went to bed."

Read more about this topic:  Japanese Verb Conjugation

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