Japanese Verb Conjugation - Imperative

Most of the imperative forms are characterized by the final u becoming e.

Type Becomes Examples Imperative
Irregular verbs
する suru しろ shiro

せよ seyo
(せ se)

勘弁する kanben suru

愛する aisuru (love)

勘弁しろ kanben shiro

勘弁せよ kanben seyo
愛せ aise

来る kuru 来い koi
くれる kureru くれ kure
masu stem -ませ -mase いらっしゃいます irasshaimasu (come, go) いらっしゃいませ irasshaimase
da (copula) であれ de are
Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs
-う -u -え -e 使う tsukau (use) 使え tsukae
-く -ku -け -ke 焼く yaku (grill) 焼け yake
-ぐ -gu -げ -ge 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳げ oyoge
-す -su -せ -se 示す shimesu (show) 示せ shimese
-つ -tsu -て -te 待つ matsu (wait) 待て mate
-ぬ -nu -ね -ne 死ぬ shinu (die) 死ね shine
-ぶ -bu -べ -be 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼べ yobe
-む -mu -め -me 読む yomu (read) 読め yome
-る -ru -れ -re 走る hashiru (run) 走れ hashire
aru special class (v5aru)
-る -ru -い -i いらっしゃる irassharu

なさる nasaru

いらっしゃい irasshai

なさい nasai

Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs
-いる -iru, -える -eru -いろ -iro, -いよ -iyo

-えろ -ero, -えよ -eyo

着替える kigaeru (change clothes) 着替えろ kigaero

着替えよ kigaeyo

  • The rule for polite verbs ending in -ru applies to the consonant-stem honorific verbs irassharu, ossharu, kudasaru, gozaru, and nasaru, whose imperative forms are the same as their irregular i forms.

Usage

The imperative form is used

  • in orders, such as in the military, or to inferiors, or in textbook exercises,
  • in set phrases such as nani shiro: "no matter what".
  • in reported speech, where a polite request may be reported using a plain imperative: kashite kudasai (direct) kase to iwareta (he told me to lend it to him).

Read more about this topic:  Japanese Verb Conjugation

Other articles related to "imperative, imperatives":

Sentence Function - Allofunctional Implicature
... polite than if it were simply in the natural imperative) ... upon initial delivery, the listener must almost immediately reinterpret as an imperative and respond accordingly ... Imperative declarative (declarative structure with imperative function) I would feel more comfortable if you wore your seatbelt ...
Imperative

Imperative can mean:

  • Imperative mood, a grammatical mood expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions (syntax)
  • A morphological item expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions (morphology)
  • Imperative programming, a programming paradigm in computer science
  • Moral imperative, a philosophical concept relating to obligation
  • Imperative logic
Sentence Function - Communicative Vs. Informative - Communicative Sentences - Imperative
... An imperative sentence gives anything from a command or order, to a request, direction, or instruction ... Imperative sentences are more intentional than exclamatory sentences and do require an audience as their aim is to get the person(s) being addressed either to do or to not do something ... The negative imperative can also be called the prohibitive and the inclusive plural imperative, the hortative ...
Czech Conjugation - Imperative
... The imperative mood is formed for the 2nd person singular and plural and the 1st person plural ...
Pluperfect Progressive - Tenses, Aspects and Moods - Moods - Imperative
... An independent clause in the imperative mood uses the base form of the verb, usually with no subject (although the subject you can be added for emphasis) ... First person imperatives (cohortatives) can be formed with let us (usually contracted to let's), as in "Let's go" ... Third person imperatives (jussives) are sometimes formed similarly, with let, as in "Let him be released." More detail can be found in the Imperative mood article ...

Famous quotes containing the word imperative:

    If the Revolution has the right to destroy bridges and art monuments whenever necessary, it will stop still less from laying its hand on any tendency in art which, no matter how great its achievement in form, threatens to disintegrate the revolutionary environment or to arouse the internal forces of the Revolution, that is, the proletariat, the peasantry and the intelligentsia, to a hostile opposition to one another. Our standard is, clearly, political, imperative and intolerant.
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    Because humans are not alone in exhibiting such behavior—bees stockpile royal jelly, birds feather their nests, mice shred paper—it’s possible that a pregnant woman who scrubs her house from floor to ceiling [just before her baby is born] is responding to a biological imperative . . . . Of course there are those who believe that . . . the burst of energy that propels a pregnant woman to clean her house is a perfectly natural response to their mother’s impending visit.
    Mary Arrigo (20th century)

    The political core of any movement for freedom in the society has to have the political imperative to protect free speech.
    bell hooks (b. 1955)