Most of the imperative forms are characterized by the final u becoming e.
|する suru||しろ shiro
|勘弁する kanben suru
愛する aisuru (love)
|勘弁しろ kanben shiro
勘弁せよ kanben seyo
|来る kuru||来い koi|
|くれる kureru||くれ kure|
|masu stem||-ませ -mase||いらっしゃいます irasshaimasu (come, go)||いらっしゃいませ irasshaimase|
|だ da (copula)||であれ de are|
|Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs|
|-う -u||-え -e||使う tsukau (use)||使え tsukae|
|-く -ku||-け -ke||焼く yaku (grill)||焼け yake|
|-ぐ -gu||-げ -ge||泳ぐ oyogu (swim)||泳げ oyoge|
|-す -su||-せ -se||示す shimesu (show)||示せ shimese|
|-つ -tsu||-て -te||待つ matsu (wait)||待て mate|
|-ぬ -nu||-ね -ne||死ぬ shinu (die)||死ね shine|
|-ぶ -bu||-べ -be||呼ぶ yobu (call)||呼べ yobe|
|-む -mu||-め -me||読む yomu (read)||読め yome|
|-る -ru||-れ -re||走る hashiru (run)||走れ hashire|
|aru special class (v5aru)|
|-る -ru||-い -i||いらっしゃる irassharu
|Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs|
|-いる -iru, -える -eru||-いろ -iro, -いよ -iyo
-えろ -ero, -えよ -eyo
|着替える kigaeru (change clothes)||着替えろ kigaero
- The rule for polite verbs ending in -ru applies to the consonant-stem honorific verbs irassharu, ossharu, kudasaru, gozaru, and nasaru, whose imperative forms are the same as their irregular i forms.
The imperative form is used
- in orders, such as in the military, or to inferiors, or in textbook exercises,
- in set phrases such as nani shiro: "no matter what".
- in reported speech, where a polite request may be reported using a plain imperative: kashite kudasai (direct) kase to iwareta (he told me to lend it to him).
Read more about this topic: Japanese Verb Conjugation
Other articles related to "imperative, imperatives":
... polite than if it were simply in the natural imperative) ... upon initial delivery, the listener must almost immediately reinterpret as an imperative and respond accordingly ... Imperative declarative (declarative structure with imperative function) I would feel more comfortable if you wore your seatbelt ...
Imperative can mean:
- Imperative mood, a grammatical mood expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions (syntax)
- A morphological item expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions (morphology)
- Imperative programming, a programming paradigm in computer science
- Moral imperative, a philosophical concept relating to obligation
- Imperative logic
... An imperative sentence gives anything from a command or order, to a request, direction, or instruction ... Imperative sentences are more intentional than exclamatory sentences and do require an audience as their aim is to get the person(s) being addressed either to do or to not do something ... The negative imperative can also be called the prohibitive and the inclusive plural imperative, the hortative ...
... The imperative mood is formed for the 2nd person singular and plural and the 1st person plural ...
... An independent clause in the imperative mood uses the base form of the verb, usually with no subject (although the subject you can be added for emphasis) ... First person imperatives (cohortatives) can be formed with let us (usually contracted to let's), as in "Let's go" ... Third person imperatives (jussives) are sometimes formed similarly, with let, as in "Let him be released." More detail can be found in the Imperative mood article ...
Famous quotes containing the word imperative:
“If the Revolution has the right to destroy bridges and art monuments whenever necessary, it will stop still less from laying its hand on any tendency in art which, no matter how great its achievement in form, threatens to disintegrate the revolutionary environment or to arouse the internal forces of the Revolution, that is, the proletariat, the peasantry and the intelligentsia, to a hostile opposition to one another. Our standard is, clearly, political, imperative and intolerant.”
—Leon Trotsky (18791940)
“Because humans are not alone in exhibiting such behaviorbees stockpile royal jelly, birds feather their nests, mice shred paperits possible that a pregnant woman who scrubs her house from floor to ceiling [just before her baby is born] is responding to a biological imperative . . . . Of course there are those who believe that . . . the burst of energy that propels a pregnant woman to clean her house is a perfectly natural response to their mothers impending visit.”
—Mary Arrigo (20th century)
“The political core of any movement for freedom in the society has to have the political imperative to protect free speech.”
—bell hooks (b. 1955)