|Type||i form||Examples||i form|
|する suru (do)||し shi||勉強する benkyō suru||勉強し benkyō shi|
|来る kuru||き ki|
|だ da||であり de ari|
|Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs|
|-う -u||-い -i||使う tsukau (use)||使い tsukai|
|-く -ku||-き -ki||焼く yaku (grill)||焼き yaki|
|-ぐ -gu||-ぎ -gi||泳ぐ oyogu (swim)||泳ぎ oyogi|
|-す -su||-し -shi||示す shimesu (show)||示し shimeshi|
|-つ -tsu||-ち -chi||待つ matsu (wait)||待ち machi|
|-ぬ -nu||-に -ni||死ぬ shinu (die)||死に shini|
|-ぶ -bu||-び -bi||呼ぶ yobu (call)||呼び yobi|
|-む -mu||-み -mi||読む yomu (read)||読み yomi|
|-る -ru||-り -ri||走る hashiru (run)||走り hashiri|
|aru special class (v5aru)|
|-る -ru||-い -i||ござる gozaru||ござい gozai|
|Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs|
|-る -ru||–||見る miru (see)
食べる taberu (eat)
The i form has many uses, typically as a prefix. These include:
- To form polite verbs when followed by the -ます -masu ending: 行く iku → 行きますikimasu, 使う tsukau → 使います tsukaimasu.
- To express a wish when followed by the ending -たい -tai: 食べたい tabetai: "I want to eat it", 行きたい ikitai: "I want to go". (The -tai ending conjugates as an -い -i adjective.)
- To express a strong negative intention when followed by -はしない -wa shinai: 行きはしないよあんな所 iki wa shinai yo, anna tokoro "no way I'm going someplace like that".
- To form a command when followed by
- -なさい -nasai: これを食べなさい kore o tabenasai: "eat this", あそこへ行きなさい asoko e ikinasai: "go over there".
- -な -na: 真っすぐ帰りな massugu kaerina "go straight home": 仲良く遊びな nakayoku asobina "play nice". (Used with children, etc.)
- To express that something is easy or hard when followed by -易い -yasui or -難い -nikui: したしみ易い shitashimiyasui: "easy to befriend": 分かり難い wakarinikui: "hard to understand".
- To express excessiveness when followed by the verb -過ぎる -sugiru: 飲み過ぎる nomisugiru: "to drink too much". (sugiru can also be used with the stems of adjectives.)
- To express doing something in conjunction with something else. When followed by the suffix -ながら -nagara, the verb becomes an adverb that means doing something while doing something else.
- 歩きながら本を読んだ arukinagara hon o yonda: "I read a book as I walked."
- When followed by the verb -やがる -yagaru in yakuza speech, to express affronted contempt (a conjugation of opposite polarity to the honorifics) showing disrespect in the form of hatred combined with haughty/macho disdain for the doer/subject of the action/verb: 殺しやがる koroshiyagaru: "to have the
gall to kill ___" (e.g. without my permission). (The te form can be substituted for the i form.)
The i form also has some uses on its own, such as:
- To express purpose, with に ni: 食べに行きました tabe ni ikimashita: "I went there to eat". This is called the infinitive of purpose.
- In formal honorifics such as お使い下さい o tsukai kudasai: "Please use this".
- In conjunctions in formal writing.
For some verbs, the i form also forms part of related words in ways that are not governed by any general rules. For example:
- The i form of 食べる taberu (to eat) can prefix 物 mono to form 食べ物 tabemono (food). Similarly with 飲む nomu (to drink) and 買う kau (to buy).
- The i form of 賭ける kakeru (to bet) is a word on its own: 賭け kake, which means "a bet".
- 離す hanasu (to separate) can be suffixed to the i form of kiru (to cut) to form 切り離す kirihanasu (to cut off).
Read more about this topic: Japanese Verb Conjugation
Famous quotes containing the word form:
“For me, as a beginning novelist, all other living writers form a control group for whom the world is a placebo.”
—Nicholson Baker (b. 1957)