Japanese Verb Conjugation - Causative Passive

Causative Passive

The causative passive form is obtained by first conjugating in the causative form and then conjugating the result in the passive form.


As its rule suggests, the causative passive is used to express causation passively: 両親に勉強させられる ryōshin ni benkyō saserareru: "(I) am made to study by (my) parents".

Because words such as 待たせられる mataserareru are considered to be difficult to pronounce, frequently in colloquial speech, the middle part of the causative passive would contract. That is, 待たせられる mataserareru (I was made to wait), would become 待たされる matasareru. Another example such as "(I) was made to buy (something)" would formally be 買わせられた kawaserareta from the verb 買う kau, but colloquially, it is frequently contracted to 買わされた kawasareta. This abbreviation is not used for vowel-stem verbs, nor for the irregular する suru and くる kuru.

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... yō 見・よう mi.yō 食べ・よう tabe.yō し・よう shi.yō 来・よう ko.yō passive irrealis + れる reru 書か・れる kaka.reru さ・れる sa.reru irrealis + られる -rareru ... The passive and potential endings -reru and -rareru, and the causative endings -seru and -saseru all conjugate as group 2b verbs ... For example, a common formation is the causative-passive ending, -sase-rareru ...
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... Present stem bhava- Passive stem bhūya- Future stem bhaviṣya- Primary Causative Desiderative Intensive Present stem Present bhavati bhavate bhāvayati bh ...

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