Isotope

Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element. While all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons, each isotope differs from the others in its number of neutrons. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"). Hence: "the same place," meaning that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. The number of protons within the atom's nucleus uniquely identifies an element, but a given element may in principle have any number of neutrons. The number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus is the mass number, and each isotope of a given element has a different mass number.

For example, carbon-12, carbon-13 and carbon-14 are three isotopes of the element carbon with mass numbers 12, 13 and 14 respectively. The atomic number of carbon is 6 which means that every carbon atom has 6 protons, so that the neutron numbers of these isotopes are 6, 7 and 8 respectively.

Read more about IsotopeIsotope Vs. Nuclide, Notation, Radioactive, Primordial, and Stable Isotopes, Occurrence in Nature, Atomic Mass of Isotopes

Other articles related to "isotope, isotopes":

Soil Respiration - Methods of Measurement - Isotope Methods
... between the two pathways, different carbon isotopes are acquired preferentially ... Isotopes are the same element that differ in the number of neutrons, thereby making one isotope heavier than the other ... The two stable carbon isotopes are 12C and 13C ...
Aluminium-26 - Occurrence in The Interstellar Medium
... The isotope is mainly produced in supernovae ejecting many radioactive nuclides in the interstellar medium ... The isotope is believed to provide enough heat also to small planetary bodies, such as has been in the early history of the asteroids 1 Ceres and 4 Vesta, heating so as to differentiate their interiors ... This isotope also features in hypotheses regarding the equatorial bulge of Saturn's moon Iapetus ...
Magnetic Isotope Effect
... Magnetic isotope effects arise when a chemical reaction involves spin-selective processes, such as the radical pair mechanism ... The result is that some isotopes react preferentially, depending on their nuclear spin quantum number I ... This is in contrast to more familiar mass-dependent isotope effects ...
Applications of Isotopes - Use of Nuclear Properties
... unstable element, one can calculate the amount of time that has elapsed since a known level of isotope existed ... forms of spectroscopy rely on the unique nuclear properties of specific isotopes, both radioactive and stable ... For example, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be used only for isotopes with a nonzero nuclear spin ...
Mass Spectrum Analysis - Isotope Effects
... Isotope peaks within a spectra can help in structure elucidation ... Compounds containing halogens (especially chlorine and bromine) can produce very distinct isotope peaks ... only contain elements with less intense isotope peaks (carbon or oxygen), the distribution of these peaks can be used to assign the spectrum to the correct compound ...